Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay about Platos Allegory of the Cave - 1305 Words

Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† is the most significant and influential analogy in his book, The Republic. This thorough analogy covers many of the images Plato uses as tools throughout The Republic to show why the four virtues, also known as forms, are what create good. The â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†, however, is not one of the simplest representations used by Plato. Foremost, to comprehend these images such as the â€Å"divided line† or Plato’s forms, one must be able to understand this allegory and all of its metaphors behind it. In order to further comprehend Plato’s analogy and thought behind â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†, we are obliged to learn of his uprising as a philosopher and what his beliefs were. Plato was originated from a wealthy, noble†¦show more content†¦This line consisted of four segments and two halves. Within the first half (the smaller half) it presented the sensible world, or the physical world, whe re we use our senses to recognize our surroundings. The first segment held all that was unreal such as dreams and illusions meanwhile the second segment provided reality, all physical objects. The second half (the larger half), represented the intelligible world, where thought and discovery is made. In the third segment there was mathematical knowledge whereas the fourth and final segment held the highest purpose, the Theory of Forms. This theory consists of four virtues wisdom, justice, piety and temperance and when combined it creates the Forms of all Forms, the Form of Good. â€Å"Plato states that the Form of the Good is the ultimate object of knowledge, although it is not knowledge itself, and from the Good, things that are just gain their usefulness and value. Humans are compelled to pursue the good, but no one can hope to do this successfully without philosophical reasoning.† As we learned in the lecture, the Greeks held man very highly. They believed humans were the most significant and vital aspect of life itself, therefore only good should surround it. In the play there are two characters Socrates and Glaucon, Plato’s brother. Socrates begins to describe the inside of a cave, which symbolizes the sensible world, where prisoners are held captive and chained, immobilized from the head toShow MoreRelatedPlatos Allegory of the Cave1521 Words   |  7 PagesPlato’s Allegory of the Cave Essay One of Plato’s more famous writings, The Allegory of the Cave, Plato outlines the story of a man who breaks free of his constraints and comes to learn of new ideas and levels of thought that exist outside of the human level of thinking. However, after having learned so many new concepts, he returns to his fellow beings and attempts to reveal his findings but is rejected and threatened with death. This dialogue is an apparent reference to his teacher’s theoriesRead MorePlatos Allegory of The Cave752 Words   |  3 Pagesinterpreting Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave’’ in which is a representation that described a narrative of the society of people in before Christ years. I realized how there was a major comparison of people in today’s society that reflected the same prisoner traits as the prisoners that were described in the dialogue. According to the Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave.† It described conditions of people chain ed at birth unable to function as independent individuals that were locked in a protracted dark cave. TheyRead MoreAnalysis Of Platos Allegory Of The Cave864 Words   |  4 PagesOn the surface of Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† it is just a simple piece, but the main purpose of the piece is to explain people living in a world of face value and having individuals break free from the main idea to create a new sense of what the world is truly about. In here, Plato uses the writing style of allegory to encompass the use of imagery and symbolism to explain his purpose. He also uses very clever dialogue with constant repetition to represent a bigger idea about the philosophy withRead MoreExplain Platos Allegory Of The Cave1483 Words   |  6 Pagesquestions they raised. For instance, Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† is essential for philosophy because it answers the question of why should anyone engage in philosophy. This paper will explain Plato†™s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† in both classical and modern manner as well as suggest philosophical topics for further inquiry. Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† is told through the lips of Socrates, Plato’s teacher, to Glaucon, Plato’s brother. Socrates suggests imagining a deep cave having a large room and a steepRead MoreAnalysis of Platos Allegory of the Cave948 Words   |  4 PagesPlatos Allegory of the Cave Platos Allegory of the Cave is also termed as the Analogy of the Cave, Platos Cave, or the Parable of the Cave. It was used by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic to illustrate our nature in its education and want of education. It comprises of a fictional dialogue between Platos teacher Socrates and Platos brother Glaucon. Socrates gives a description of a group of people who spent their lifetime facing a blank wall chained to the wall of a caveRead MoreAnalysis Of Platos Allegory Of The Cave1532 Words   |  7 PagesIn the allegory written by Plato titled â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†, Plato discusses the concept of seeking knowledge and gaining wisdom. He uses a story of prisoners trapped into a cave to represent the confines of reality that humans are put into, and a lone prisoner exiting the cave to represent a philosopher seeking a greater understanding. Plato’s writing tells of the flaw that all humans share, which is the fact that we believe our p erceptions to be the absolute, incontestable truth. It is thisRead MorePlatos Allegory Of The Cave Essay1749 Words   |  7 Pages Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† is full of meaningful, thought provoking lessons that have been analyzed be scholars and philosophers for years. One of the basic lessons we can draw from it is immaterial truth, or forms. In Plato’s cave scenario, the men who only see shadows have ideas of what they are seeing. They conclude they can see certain things and can name those things. But what they see as an actual object, they are actually just seeing a shadow of the actual object. â€Å"If they discuss thingsRead MorePlatos Allegory of the Cave and Advertisements1889 Words   |  8 PagesJulian Figueroa (#30973127) 1 An Allegory of Advertisements How does Plato’s allegory influence the way we consume art today? Every minute of every day, millions of people are exposed to advertisements. They plague televisions, streets, radio waves, and all means of communication. These advertisements employ many methods of persuasion and their influence is irresistible. Just like prisoners in Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, we are told every day to invest our time and interest into the subjectRead MoreEssay on Platos Allegory of the Cave1315 Words   |  6 Pagescriticized? In Plato’s Allegory of a Cave he describes an example of people conforming to the norm they were born into and then shows the results of a person emerging from this community into a completely new and different world. People today are trapped into conforming to the American way to avoid being chastised but if we all stand up and make our own decisions based on what we want and our own path, eventually individuality will become the social norm. In Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, the personsRead MorePlatos Allegory of the Cave3086 Words   |  13 PagesPrompt: Define Plato s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave†. What is the central message? Is he describing education alone? Where does politics come in? Plato is known to many as one of the most influential and greatest philosophers to have lived. Plato represents his idea of reality and the truth about what we perceive through one of his famous writings, â€Å"The Allegory of the Cave†. The philosophical writing is in the form of an allegory, which is â€Å"a story in which the characters and situations actually represent

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The United States Prison System - 1215 Words

The United States prison system incarcerates more people per capita than nearly all European countries, and roughly two-thirds of those inmates that are released will be arrested again within three years (Ward et al, 2015). Some facilities have relatively successful programs that cut down on the recidivism numbers. However, the majority of prisons are focused on punishment and make no efforts at rehabilitation. Something in the American justice systems needs to change so that the cycle can be broken. To accomplish this, we can look at the justice system of other countries and try to determine whether such systems would work in the United States. Norway’s prison system, for example, is rated among the best in the world by the numbers. The†¦show more content†¦This is not so easily done in a capitalist system. Also, there is not as much social and economic inequality in Norway as there is in America. Most experts will point out the importance of this factor on crime num bers. This can be attributed in part to the previously mentioned difference in governmental systems. So while the Norwegian system as a whole likely cannot be enacted in the United States, it is possible that certain elements can be carried over to the American system in order to improve it. Due to the general American mentality toward justice – which is largely retributive and not restorative, particularly for heinous crimes like murder – these changes would likely be best implemented in cases where the crimes are less severe. People who have been convicted of theft, arson, drug charges, and other minor offenses stand the best chance of being rehabilitated. To throw these nonviolent individuals into prisons with more serious offenders, and potentially with subhuman conditions, may lead to them becoming violent. At the very least, they are more likely to reoffend. Though an extreme case, Miami’s â€Å"mega-jail† houses 7,000 inmates, and most of them are on remand for relatively minor offenses – and yet the atmosphere is extremely violent (Theroux, 2011). If we can cut down on these instances through changes geared towards restorative justice, we stand a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Does A Owned Enslaved Race Best Obtain Financial And...

How does a formerly enslaved race best obtain financial and social equality? This question has predominated African American culture since the end of the Civil War and the subsequent ushering in of the Reconstruction Period. Many well-known authors have explored the issue, some of the most prolific of which include Booker T. Washington, Charles Chesnutt, and W.E.B. Dubois. While all of these three men aspired to see the advancement of their people, each had his own unique mode and method of attempting to actualize this achievement. Washington felt that his people should earn their rightful place in a culture predominated by racism through the patient merit of their own individual actions. In his autobiographical work Up From Slavery, he emphasizes the many white people who treated him with fairness and kindness, including the founder of Hampton, General Samuel C. Armstrong, without whom many former slaves such as Washington would never have received education and training in profitab le trade. As a result of his experience at Hampton, Washington â€Å"advised his fellow African Americans to accept, at least temporarily, the political status quo and to work gradually to change it by proving themselves valuable, productive members of society who deserved fair treatment before the law; [and] eventually, they could claim their civil rights† (548). In the interim, Washington worked tirelessly to educate white America on the history and potential of his people through his manyShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesperspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7 (paper : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0271-4 (electronic) 1. History, Modern—20th century. 2. Twentieth century. 3. Social history—20th century. 4. World politics—20th century. I. Adas, Michael, 1943– II. American Historical Association. D421.E77 2010 909.82—dc22 2009052961 The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of the American National Standard

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

For the Love of Food Essay Example For Students

For the Love of Food Essay For the Love of Food We live in a world that is so fast paced, so full of hustle and bustle and complications. There are days where people stress themselves to the point of physical illness and where life seems to be anything but pleasant and enjoyable. Then there are the days that are so stimulating, so full of excitement and pleasure, the memory plasters to the inner walls of your brain. My favorite memories are the hours spent laughing in the warm kitchen, using my hands, mouth and nose as guides while my mom teaches me a new family recipe. In The Bone Garden of Desire, uthor Charles Bowden shows his philosophy of life through the use of detailed and poetic language. I will show that the main theme of this piece is the pursuit of a higher quality of life through the appreciation of food, through indulging in the satisfaction one receives from food; tasting, preparing, cooking, examining, feeling, desiring and eating it. I will discuss how Bowden describes memories of cooking and eating with friends, he uses historical references to emphasize the significance of food in our lives, and his incorporation of recipes to show how food and cooking increases Bowdens quality of life. Bowden attains a higher quality of life through memories of cooking and sharing the love of food with friends. Although he reflects on the lives of his friends prior to their deaths and the reader is made aware of how each character passes away, the story is truly about appreciating life. He paints a vivid picture as he describes one of his favorite memories with his friend Art Just months before he passes and becomes part of Bowdens bone garden, The beef was tender, the chiles hot, but not too hot, just enough to excite the tongue, and the seasonings bite, the garlic licks the taste uds, and I began to float on the sensations as Art drank his beer and the plants grew and stirred, the hummingbirds whizzed overhead and then hovered before my face, my tongue rubbed against the roof of my mouth, and it is all a swirl of sensation as I remember that summer day cooking (Bowden 31) Bowdens passion for food is splashed across every page; his poetic use of language makes you want to eat each word, and devour the food he describes, as you read it off the page. Although death is present throughout the story, Bowdens love of food nd appreciation for life outshines any sorrow; lessons are learned, and one is left with a sense of personal gain. Death is naturally part of life and part of living is the relationship we have with food; eating, preparing and cooking it. Bowdens use of historical culinary facts and stories is scattered throughout the narrative as a way to emphasize the importance of food in our lives. The opening anecdote of a famous composer supports Bowdens philosophy, Rossini, the great opera composer, could recall only two moments of real grief in his life. One, when his other died. And the second time was out on a boat when a chicken stuffed with truffles fell into the water and was lost (30). Bowdens narrative is not told in cnronologlcal order. HIS tales are snared In a scattered, almost clrcular, story-telllng fashion. This is his way of provoking the reader to exercise and challenge their thought processes, this is part of what makes his story so complex. Where at times the reader may feel lost in the story Jumping from paragraph to paragraph, from one big event to the next, Bowdens strategic placement of intriguing food facts and istorical significances puts the reader back on track to the theme of the story; enjoyment of food for a higher quality of life. Just as the memories of cooking with friends enlightens Bowdens life, so too does the drive to share the recipes with others. The memories that Bowden shares, exemplifies the strong emotions that rise in connection with sharing food and time with friends cooking. l can still taste the salsa and smell the cilantro and feel that rocking motion as he tries to show me the right way to wield the knife. And to make salsa, his salsa, as he learned it from his wife, Josie, who learned from her parents nd back into the brown web of time (41). .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f , .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .postImageUrl , .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f , .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:hover , .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:visited , .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:active { border:0!important; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:active , .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue00d3e768d1864f93c8923d54bf1e02f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Deming EssayHe continues on, sharing a salsa recipe that was passed on to him; the recipe that he holds so dear to his heart, Put five or six sixteen-ounce cans of whole tomatoes into a big pot, reserving the liquid. Coarse- grind the tomatoes in a food processor, a short pulse so they come out in chunks and not puree. Now add them to the reserved Juice. Cut up two or three bunches of GREEN ONION, in very thin slices so that you end up with tiny circles. Now very finely cut up a bunch of CILANTRO. Add five cans of diced GREEN CHILES, a teaspoon of GARLIC POWDER, and the onion and cilantro to the tomatoes and their Juice. Sprinkle a teaspoon of two of OREGANO. Taste it and adjust seasoning. Now start crushing CHILTEPINS (Capsicum annuum var. aviculare) and add to taste. Add salt. Taste again. Keep crushing chiltepins until it is right for your tongue (41) For Bowden, sharing these recipes with readers is a way to keep the tradition alive, to keep the food alive, to keep the memories of his friends alive, and lastly, to keep the warm feeling of sufficing an appetite, Alive. We live in a world where life demands that people stay on their toes, think quickly nd hustle from task to task. In a life that is so fast-paced, it is important to take some time to Just indulge in desires, Things Just are. And if you look around, theyre pretty good. Have a cold beer, a warm meal. And take in the countryside (38). In The Bone Garden of Desire, Charles Bowden demonstrates his philosophy that through the appreciation of food, through indulging in the satisfaction that is received from food, one is able to achieve a higher quality of life. To put it simply, in the words of Bowden l eat, therefore I am (33).

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Contribution ancient great thinkers to the growth and development of psychology

Introduction Psychology evolved from ancient civilization of Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Arabs, among other ancient great thinkers who made significant contribution to the development of psychology over the centuries. Psychology developed from various fields of knowledge such as philosophy, sociology, biology, physiology, anthropology, and other related disciplines because it interfaces widely with diverse disciplines.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Contribution ancient great thinkers to the growth and development of psychology specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Until 1879, psychology was a dependent discipline, which formed part of ancient philosophy and it evolved to due to emergence of empirical scientific skills that enhanced research and validation of psychological theories. Since psychology is the study of mental processes and human behaviors, it was challenging and complex for the ancient psych ologists to design experiments that would empirically demonstrate psychology of human beings. Hunt admits that â€Å"studying the behaviors of humans is more complicated because of the influence of extraneous variables that are difficult to control. Oftentimes it requires researchers to make inferences or interpretation because the data is comparatively less clear-cut† (2006, p.12). The emergence of scientific skills and their application in various fields of knowledge led to the development of psychology as an independent field from philosophy. To explore history of psychology, this essay examines personalistic and naturalistic contributions of different theorists who represent various phases of psychological history such as philosophical antecedent, early physiological experiment, applied behaviorism, psychoanalytic movement, and contemporary movement, and ultimately evaluate personalistic and naturalistic views of psychological history. Philosophical Antecedents to Psychol ogy Before the development of empirical scientific skills in the late 19th century, psychology was an integral part of philosophy since great philosophers used rational introspective of human behaviors to understand the nature of human beings. Since philosophical ideologies questioned human mind and behavior, it provided a basis for the psychologists and physiologists to elucidate human mind and behavior according to their respective perceptions. Ancient great thinkers employed philosophy and physiology in the study of human mind and behaviors.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Griffiths, philosophy entails introspection of mental processes because â€Å"through a process of self-questioning and asking others questions; philosophers have attempted to unravel how we think, how we learn, how we gain knowledge and how we use our experiences† (2007, p.5). On the other h and, physiology involved the study of human body to unravel complex processes of the body relative to health. Then, the relationship between the mind and the body perplexed ancient philosophers and this led to the development of psychology as an independent field of knowledge that considers both philosophy of the mind and physiology of the body. Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.), an ancient philosopher, examined human life and argued that the mind and the body have intricate connection because the mind has the ability to control the body. Plato (427-347B.C.) argued that the mind and the body are two distinct components of a person that interact effectively in bringing about human behavior. Plato believed that human beings gain knowledge through introspection rather than through observation; hence, he formed the foundation for rationalism. Aristotle (348-322 B.C.), a student of Plato contested that the mind and the body are not different entities of a human being, as he believed that physio logical study of the body through observation is critical in understanding how the mind functions, thus his argument formed foundation for empiricism. Based on philosophical work of Plato and Aristotle, rationalism and empiricism are respective two approaches of psychology that emerged. Nadel (2008) argues that â€Å"a rationalist believes that the route to knowledge is through logical analysis while an empiricist believes that we acquire knowledge via empirical evidence, that is, we obtain evidence through experience and observation† (p.54). Thus, rationalism and empiricism are significant approaches of modern psychology that originated from philosophical ideologies of human nature.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Contribution ancient great thinkers to the growth and development of psychology specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During 16th and 17th, rationalism and empiricism became prominent when more phil osophers formulated psychological theories that explain human mind and behavior. Rene Descartes (1596-1550), a great thinker of this period supported rationalism arguing that the mind and the body are distinct components of a human being that mutually interact and determine the behavior of a person. He believed that human beings have cognitive abilities that differentiate them from animals. On the other hand, John Locke believed that the mind and the body are one and that they interact equally. He perceived that mutual coexistence of the body and mind is imperative for the development of human behavior because the body can sense various stimuli from the environment and the mind too process sensed information for the body to respond appropriately to diverse environmental conditions. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), agreed with both rationalism and empiricism views arguing that they are essential in psychological study of mind and human behaviors. The philosophical issue of the mind and the body complicated philosophical studies of the nature of human beings that resulted in formulation of diverse theories. Hunt argues that â€Å"the issues confronted by philosophers, physicians, and psychologists are so intertwined that when psychology was starting out as a field of study in the late 1800s, it was viewed by some as a branch of philosophy† (2006, p.18). Ultimately, psychology emerged and became independent from philosophy as the science of mind and human behavior. During the earliest period of psychological evolution, philosophers differed in defining the relationship between the mind and the body. Rationalists believed that the mind and the body are separate and distinct components of a human being and thus, psychological study should have its basis through introspection of the mind by rational analysis. However, Rene Desecrates resolved the philosophical problem of the mind and body by arguing that they are distinct components of a person, hence rationalism f ormed the basis of ancient psychology and is equally central to modern psychology (Watson, 2008, p.9).Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Descartes’ beliefs did set the stage for the development of empirical psychology. Since the problem of mind and body dominated the minds of many great philosophers, naturalistic approach best explains contribution of Rene Desecrates in the ancient period. Philosophers like Hippocrates, Aristotle, Plato, John Locke, and Immanuel Kant contributed to the emergence and evolution of psychology during the ancient times. The philosophers discovered that the mind and the body are entities that interact in the body, which resulted into rationalism and empiricism study of psychology. Early Physiological and Experimental psychology Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), a German philosopher and psychologist, came up with early physiological and experimental psychology that has become the basis of modern empirical study of psychology. He dedicated his studies to carrying out physiological experiments for he intended to unravel the mystery behind structure of the mind. Wundt believed in the structura l perception of human mind. Hence his studies focused on structuralism theory in contrast with functionalism theory that elucidates human mind from functional point of view. According to Marr, â€Å"Structuralism seeks to understand the structure and configuration of elements of the mind and its perceptions by analyzing those perceptions into their constituent components† (2008, p.56). Wundt assumed that physiological and psychological processes of a person interact in the body resulting into development of behavior. He became the father of experimental psychology since he established scientific laboratory where he conducted psychological experiments. He further designed various models of experiments so that he would detect how human senses coordinate with mental structures bringing out certain responses. Wilhelm Wundt revolutionized psychology because he was the first to apply empirical scientific skills in the study of psychology. Due to his experiments, psychology gained e nough footing and became independent field of knowledge with significant empirical evidences to support its theories that were earlier incredible. Wilhelm Wundt believed that behavior of a person depends on the interaction of physiological and psychological elements. â€Å"Physiological psychology was concerned with the process of excitations from stimulation of the sense organs, through sensory neurons to the lower and higher brain centers, and from these centers to the muscles† (Nadel, 2008, p.58). The physiological psychology provided an empirical perspective of studying psychology since earlier studies viewed psychology from philosophical point of view and applied philosophical ideologies and theories in the understanding of human mind and behaviors. According to the physiological and experimental psychology, Wilhelm Wundt assumed that physiological processes of senses could give significant information concerning the functioning of the brain. He designed novel experiment s in the laboratory, which focused in establishing the relationship between the mind and the body through physiological actions of nerves. The experiment gave robust findings that led to the development of structural theory of psychology that posits that mental and physiological structures interact effectively in the body and are responsible for the development of human behavior. Wilhelm Wundt employed introspection as one of the method of analyzing the relationship between the mind and the body through physiological mechanism of the body. â€Å"Although Wundt’s method of introspection did not remain a fundamental tool of psychological experimentation past the early 1920s, his greatest contribution was to show that psychology could be a valid experimental science,† (Wilson Keil, 2007, p.60). Thus, Wilhelm Wundt did not only prove that psychology is an experimental science but also did contribute to the independence of psychology in the 20th century. Based on the empir ical ideology of philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt formulated the first scientific experiment in a laboratory for he assumed that the relationship between the mind and the body lies in their interaction through physiological mechanism. He conducted experiments where he determined effects of varied stimuli on the mind and responses (Marr, 2008, p.72). His work led to the independence of psychology as science of the mind and behavior for empirical studies enhanced validation of many psychological theories that relied on philosophical ideologies. Personalistic approach concerning the history of psychology best accounts for his contribution to the evolution of psychology. He was the first psychologist to conduct laboratory experiment to test the relationship between the body and the mind by using varied environmental stimuli. His experimental efforts and findings revolutionized the study of psychology from rational perspective to empirical perspective. Physiological and experimental psychology of Wilhelm Wundt did prove that psychology is an experiential science that needs scientific skills to validate its theories. Due to great work of Wilhelm Wundt, psychology has become the science of mind and behavior in the modern society. Applied psychology and Behaviorism John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) was a great proponent of behavioral theory of psychology that explains human mind and behavior. Watson did study physiological and experimental psychology of Wilhelm Wundt and found that physiology alone could not explain the nature of human mind. He extended experimental physiology to include animal models in his experiments because he could easily manipulate their behavior as compared to human beings. Watson assumed that behavior of a person reflects psychological status in that studying human behaviors could tell a lot about their minds. Behavioral theory assumes that human behaviors are a reflection of the mental conditions and thus should form central basis of studying psycholo gy. In his experiments, Watson used animal models because he assumed that he could effectively extrapolate the results and apply them to human behaviors. â€Å"Using the conclusions drawn from animal research, Watson did much to enlighten educators about the complexities of learning, motivation, response generation, and problem-solving,† (Hart Kritsonis, 2006, p.8). Although his view of psychology differed with the introspection ideology of Wilhelm Wundt, he employed physiological experiment in determining stimuli-based behaviors of animals. The behavioral theory of psychology made significant contribution to the empirical study of psychology and led to the evolution of other fields of psychology such as behavioral psychology and social psychology, which are essential in explaining human behavior in the society. Watson disputed psychological views of structuralism and functionalism for he perceived that they lacked sufficient empirical applications and extrapolation to diver se human behaviors in the society. Many psychologists â€Å"credits Watson for having brought credence to some of the psychoanalytic concepts such as the role of early childhood experiences, trauma and relationships with significant social agents, primarily maternal figures, in the formation a child’s personality, capabilities and propensities† (Hart Kritsonis, 2006, p.9). Therefore, behaviorism has become an essential aspect of modern psychology for it has expanded empirical application and study of human mind and behaviors. After analyzing the work of physiological and experimental psychology of Wilhelm Wundt, John Watson formulated behavioral theory of psychology. He assumed that there is correlation between the mind and behaviors of individuals and thus, studying human behaviors could unravel the mystery behind the functioning of the mind. Since John Watson based his behavioral studies on earlier work of experimental psychology, naturalistic approach appropriately accounts for his contribution to the history of psychology. Behavioral theory has become very important in modern psychology, as it is applicable in the diagnosis of varied mental disorders. Psychoanalytic Movement Sigmund Freud was a great psychologist of the 20th century who came up with psychoanalytic theory to elucidate how human mind functions and how it influences human behavior. He was a neurologist and thus his knowledge concerning the functioning of the brain-inspired him to formulate psychoanalytic theory. Examining mental disorders of the children, Sigmund Freud discovered that some disorders such as necrosis and hysteria affect mental functions while organic matter in the mind remains intact. Through neurological examination, he singled the cause of hysterical disorders as repressed memories of traumatic experiences since organic matter remained intact. Sigmund Freud formulated psychotherapy procedure that helped the patients to recall traumatic experiences so that he c ould guide them in resolving psychological crises arising from repressed memories. Sigmund Freud explains that â€Å"we guided the patient’s attention directly to the traumatic scene during which the symptom had arisen, tried to find therein the psychic conflict and to free the repressed affect †¦ discovered the procedure characteristic of the psychic processes of the neuroses† (Strachey, 2007, p.7). From the experience as a neurologist, Sigmund Freud discovered that mental disorders do not require physiotherapy but psychotherapy and thus, he applied regression analysis of life experiences to awaken and resolve repressed memories of patients. Realizing that necroses relate with the sexual drives of children, Sigmund Freud formulated psychosexual theory after exploring sexual development from a psychological point of view. He argued that sexual development intricately links with the mind and determines the behavior of an individual. Freud changed the perception of sex when he proposed that sexuality forms an integral part of childhood development because sexual drives mediate between the body and the mind. He noted that sexual instincts are major driving forces in personality development. Sigmund Freud redefined the ordinary physical perspective of sexual development by incorporating the psychological aspects of psyche. In his psychoanalysis theory, Freud proposed that the psyche has three components, namely, the ego, the super-ego, and the I.D. (Strachey, 2007, p.84). Super-ego is the conscious component of the psyche that imposes and regulates cultural sexual constraints while the I.D. is the unconscious component that determines the sexual instincts of pleasure and is important in socialization. The ego is the component of the psyche that interfaces and coordinates the super-ego and the I.D. in the harmonization of the conflicting sexual instincts and cultural sexual constraints in the process of psychosexual development. Thus, Sigmund Fre ud modeled psychosexual development into five stages: â€Å"oral phase, anal phase, phallic phase, latency phase and genital phase† (Strachey, 2007, p.83) depending on the source of the sexual instinct. Contrary to the behavioral theory, Sigmund Freud came up with psychoanalytic theory, which postulates that mental disorders such as necroses and hysteria are due to repressed memories of past traumatic experiences. In addition, he formulated psychosexual theory where he explained how the three elements of psyche viz. superego, ego, and I.D. interact effectively in resolution of psychosexual crises (Wilson Keil, 2007, p.44). Since Sigmund Freud came up with the psychoanalytic theory together with his friends, personalistic and naturalistic approaches best account for his contribution to the history of psychology His psychoanalytic principles are central to modern psychotherapy Contemporary Movement Social constructivism is a contemporary school of thought in psychology whose p roponents argue that scientific and psychological ideologies are all constructs of humanity and that they did not exist in their own. The social construction theory shifted from self-psychology and incorporated the influence of social environment to the mind and subsequent development of behaviors. Kenneth Gergen is a modern proponent of construction theory who argues that science and philosophy are human constructs that cannot fully explain psychological and behavioral development in the society with many social factors that confound inquiry in psychology. â€Å"What we take to be experience of the world does not in itself dictate the terms by which the world is understood. What we take to be knowledge of the world is not a product of induction, or of the building and testing of general hypotheses† (Gergen, 2009, p.266). He criticizes empiricists for over-reliance on observation as basis of scientific knowledge for he holds that observers have bias when making their empirica l observations. Since some aspects of psychology such as emotions are very abstract for empirical analyses, empirical studies of human thoughts and behavioral are not sufficient in validation and elucidation of psychological theories. According to the social construction theory, interaction of human beings in the universe has played significant role in shaping their thoughts and behaviors. Human beings have made diverse social constructs in the society that have shaped human behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Constructionists believe that understanding of the world, human behavior and thoughts lies in mutual interaction of people, and their systems in the society. Boghossian argues that the study of culture, personality, emotions and memories â€Å"direct our attention to the social, moral, political and economic institutions that sustain and are supported by current assumptions about human activity† (2010, p.32). In modern society, social psychology is applicable in politica l spheres, in management levels, and in various interactions of people where mobilization is necessary. Kenneth Gergen is a contemporary proponent of social construction theory that critics empirical psychology as insufficient in elucidating human behavior and mental functions. He added social aspect as a determinant of human behavior and mental functions for he believed that social forces are integral part of the psychology because they influence interaction of human beings in the society. Given that many of his contemporaries contributed to the formulation of the social construction theory, naturalistic approach appropriately explains his contribution to the history of psychology Summary Naturalistic and personalistic perspectives are two approaches that help in understanding the history and evolution of psychology. While naturalistic perspective of psychological history emphasizes collective intellectual contribution by the great thinkers, personalistic perspective of psychologic al history emphasizes on individual contribution to the growth and evolution of psychology. According to naturalistic perception, history of psychology is collection of great ideologies from many thinkers who contributed to the development and evolution of psychology during various intellectual and historical periods into the modern psychology. Personalistic approach to the study of psychological history emphasizes individual contributions and regards them as heroic intellectuals. Watson argues that â€Å"the history of what man has accomplished in this world is at bottom the history of the great men who have worked here† (2009, p.12). Personalistic theory assumes that the history of psychology is just but a history of great persons who made significant contributions, which changed the course of psychology throughout the history. Conclusion Ancient great thinkers made significant contribution to the growth and development of psychology. During the ancient times, psychology wa s part of philosophy because it lacked empirical validation of its theories. Psychology was dependent on philosophical ideologies of rationalism in the study of human thoughts and behaviors. In the late 19th century, Wilhelm Wundt came up with empirical view of psychology for he conducted first laboratory experiment to find out the relationship between the mind and the body via physiological actions of nerves. His experiments revolutionized psychology to become an independent field of knowledge, which could validate its theories using scientific principles of research. Thus, empirical psychology formed the foundation for the emergence of behavioral theory, psychoanalytic theory and contemporary social construction theory, which are integral part of modern psychology. References Boghossian, P. (2010). Contemporary Construction Theory. The Institute of  Psychological studies, 1-45. Gergen, K. (2009). The Social Constructionist Movement in Modern Psychology.  American Psychologist, 40(3), 266-281. Griffiths, P. (2007). Evolutionary Psychology: History, and Current Status.  The Philosophy of Science, 1-14. Hart, K., Kritsonis, W. (2006). A Critical Analysis of John B. Watson’s Original Writing: Behaviorisms as a Behaviorist Views It. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(3), 1-21. Hunt, M. (2006). The History of Psychology. London: Prentice Hall. Marr, D. (2008). Origin and History of Psychology. New York: Cambridge Press. Nadel, L. (2008). Introduction to Cognitive Psychology. London: Nature Publishing Group. Strachey, J. (2007). The History of Psychoanalytic Movement: Sigmund Freud.  Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 24(7), 1-134. Watson, R. (2008). Introduction to Psychology’s History. The American Psychological  Association, 1-44. Wilson, R., Keil, F. (2007). Evolution of Psychology: Ancient and Modern Perception.  The Journal of Psychology, 45(9), 23-67. This essay on Contribution ancient great thinkers to the growth and development of psychology was written and submitted by user Conor Richmond to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Facts and Key Figures in the Battle of Gettysburg

Facts and Key Figures in the Battle of Gettysburg Dates July 1-3, 1863 Location Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Key Individuals Involved in the Battle of Gettysburg Union: Major General George G. Meade Confederate: General Robert E. Lee Outcome Union Victory, with 51,000 casualties total. Of those, 28,000 were Confederate soldiers. Overview of the Battle General Robert E. Lee had succeeded at the Battle of Chancellorsville and decided to push north in his Gettysburg campaign. He met the Union forces in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lee concentrated his armys full strength against Major General George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac at the Gettysburg crossroads. On July 1, Lees forces moved on the Union forces in the town from both the west and the north. This drove the Union defenders through the streets of the city to Cemetery Hill. During the night, reinforcements arrived for both sides of the battle. On July 2, struck the Lee attempted to surround the Union army. First, he sent Longstreets and Hills divisions to strike the Union left flank at the Peach Orchard, Devil’s Den, the  Wheatfield, and the Round Tops. He then sent Ewells divisions against the Union right flank at Culp’s and East Cemetery Hills. By evening, the Union forces still held  Little Round Top  and had repulsed most of Ewell’s forces. During the morning of July 3, the Union struck back and were able to drive the Confederate infantry from their last toe-hold on Culp’s Hill. That  afternoon, after a short artillery bombardment, Lee decided to push the attack on the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault (more popularly, Pickett’s Charge) briefly struck through the Union line but was quickly repulsed with severe casualties. At the same time, Stuart’s cavalry tried to gain the Union rear, but his forces were also repulsed. On July 4, Lee began withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles. Significance of the Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg is seen as the turning point of the war. General Lee had  attempted and failed to invade the North. This was a move designed to remove pressure from Virginia and possibly emerge victorious so as to quickly end the war. The failure of Pickett’s Charge was the sign of the Souths loss. This loss for the Confederates was demoralizing. General Lee would never attempt another invasion of the North to this degree.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Perception of Students' Regarding Online Courses Essay

Perception of Students' Regarding Online Courses - Essay Example The findings reveal that students largely consider their online courses as of good quality, but there are concerns regarding the future career. Research findings also highlight that course content need to be made more easy and sufficient to facilitate better understanding and the website need to facilitate easy navigation and better interaction so that the students can remain engaged with the material and be motivated to study. Topic: Perception of Students’ Regarding Online Courses Table of Contents 1. Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 2. Literature Review------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 3. Research Methodology------------------------------------------------------------------------5 4. Research Findings------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 5. Conclusions ----------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------14 6. ... s’ on the Sufficiency of the Content-------------------10 Figure 3: Perceptions of Students’ on the Contents’ ability to Engage and Interest--10 Figure 4: Perceptions of Students’ on the Website Navigation----------------------------11 Figure 5: Perceptions of Students’ on the 24-hr Availability of the Content-----------11 Figure 6: Perceptions of Students’ on the Content Interactivity--------------------------12 Figure 7: Perceptions of Students’ on their ability to remain self-motivated and disciplined---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 Figure 8: Perceptions of Students’ about their Career Prospects ------------------------13 7. List of Appendices Appendix A: Survey Questionnaire-----------------------------------------------------------15 8. References--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 1 Topic: Perception of Stude nts’ Regarding Online Courses 1. Introduction The rapid proliferation of Internet and improvements in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) have made it possible for students to access and enrol in courses offered online by foreign Universities. While this has large scale implications for the global education, it also helps students to obtain certifications and degrees in subjects and from colleges that were previously out of their reach. While there are a large number of Universities that offer online courses (Allen and Seaman, 2010), and there is substantial recognition of such online courses in the corporate world (Wanstreet, 2006), there are also several challenges inherent in the technology and the mode of delivery that impact the efficacy of the courses (Shi and Morrow, 2006). There are several problems related