Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Challenges to Kingstons Tourism Industry

Challenges to Kingstons Tourism Industry Kingston has many natural, heritage and infrastructural assets that lend themselves to the development of urban tourism and, at one time, was viewed as a viable tourist destination. The citys history, however, indicates a level of creeping neglect and social turmoil which has led to what is today, an almost non-existent tourist presence. However, it is the social problems that are faced by Kingston, in the form of poverty, crime, and violence, that form the strongest arguments in favour of the development of tourism infrastructure in Kingston. It argued that these are merely symptoms of the greater problem of social exclusion and the lack of economic opportunities for the community at large. Therefore infrastructural development that leads to the creation of sustainable employment opportunities is required. The citys current dependency on manufacturing and related industries has failed to provide the growth or economic benefits required, particularly since the liberalization of the Jamaican economy and the removal of trade protection. Jamaica has not been competitive, neither as a low cost producer of manufactured goods nor as centre of excellence in any particular manufacturing process, not even when compared with its Caribbean neighbours, such as Trinidad and Tobago. It is therefore unlikely that this sector will be the engine of future growth required to provide the people of Kingston with the economic and social benefits required. Conversely, Jamaica has gained significant comparative advantage in tourism, even though its capital city has not been central to this thus far. Many cities in the US and around the globe, facing decline in their manufacturing or primary industries, have embarked on a similar development path and like these cities, Kingston has few available development options. However, research suggests a positive relationship between investment in infrastructure and between performance as well as between tourism and welfare. The writer suggests that properly managed tourism infrastructure in Kingston has the potential to provide significant benefits to its citizens. There is, however very little indication that tourism development in Kingston is high on the agenda of tourism policymakers. The Tourism Master Plan, while acknowledging Kingstons assets, does not make it a priority and merely passes the responsibility to the UDC. Additionally, while a number of papers, studies and plans exist that relates to various sections of Kingston, and some of these do acknowledge the tourism potential, there appears to be very little co-ordination of these initiatives and no central body that is responsible for guiding the achievement of the various plans. It is recognized that the successful development of tourism in Kingston requires the involvement of the central government, local government, the private sector and active participation of the community. It is suggested that while the government will have some role to play in the provision of basic infrastructure, the major investment in tourism infrastructure should come from the private sector. Beyond this however, the government needs to create the environment to encourage this private sector investment and act as facilitator to the development by addressing such issues as: Creation of the tax regime that would facilitate the development Development and encouragement of the capital markets Legislation to facilitate removal of derelict buildings and facilitate city cleanup Inner city housing solutions that provide good living conditions for the community Assessment and address of social and environment issues Provision for security of citizens and assets Tourism planners need to have a clear understanding of the key drivers that affect the demand for tourism products and extensive research may be required into the key factors affecting the major sources of tourists that would gain value from visiting Kingston. Markets include the, dsts VFR, CariEuropean markets, which are not heavily penetrated by the present offerings of resort towns, would make ideal initial candidates markets to be studied, applications of Butlers Area Life cycle Model to the destinations in Jamaica may be useful as it is possible that the creation of Kingston as an alternative location could strengthen Jamaicas strategic offerings. This is especially important as the resort towns approach the later stage of the life cycle and over-capacity becomes a more significant limiting factor for tourism growth an issue. At present, the governments ownership of the national airline Air Jamaica arTe Jamaica UTban Transit Company Limited (JUTC) and the ownership and operation of the Norman Manley International Airport make it an active player in the provision of tourism transportation in Kingston. In addition to its ro as policy setter and regulator the government will and therefore require fulg of the factors affecting the tourism demand and s tourism transportation. It is anticipated that Kingston will become a major cruise shipping destination and this will potentially raise issues and conflicts with the container shipping industry. There is little doubt that crime and of the major issues facing the markets acceptance of Kingston as a viable destination. However, , it is important that this is not used we do not use this as of investment. It is noted that in Jamaicas crime against tourists is relatively low and it is also noted that other countries that have high crime levels, are considered as viable tourist destinations. While the hosting by Jamaica of the semifinal of the Cricket World Cup in 2007 will may not be judge a shining success either financially or as a catalyst for tourism, the hosting does provide a number of lessons which need to be utilized in the future. It cannot be denied that the use of such events to Kick Start tourism in Kingston, if properly planned and managed could be an important part of the tourism planners strategic tool kit. A Strategic Plan is required In the writers opinion there is a clear need for a Strategic Plan for the development of Kingston; a component of which should be the development of tourism. This plan must have as one of its deliverables; the formulation of a clear vision for tourism in Kingston. This vision must be shared among the stakeholders including, national and city Government, the relevant Public Sector bodies, the private sector and the community. A clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of Kingston as a potential destination for tourists is required and in this regard it is important that the discourse on crime and violence and the impact on tourism is clearly understood. A significant output of the strategic plan should be a full inventory and assessment of the existing attributes, tourism assets such as attractions, potential attractions and infrastructural assets in the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA). This will need to be compared with the desired assets and infrastructure to determine the required investments. This investment is likely to be very significant and, given Jamaicas current fiscal constraints, is not likely to be accommodated in the present budgetary environment. The discussion of PPII does touch on infrastructure financing, though it is recognized that creative and innovative ways need to be developed to finance the development. A key issue, which must be fully considered, discussed and evaluated in the strategic plan is the issue of Leadership and Politics. While this has not been discussed in detail in this paper, it cannot be ignored as it represented a common theme in a number of the case studies that were reviewed, including St Louis, Baltimore and especially Montreal. Additional Research Required It is recognized that it is beyond the scope of this paper to consider all the applicable areas that require consideration. There is, for example, significant scope for new research to be carried out in order to understand the attitudes of the community, in Kingston and Jamaica generally, towards the active development of tourism in Kingston. It is important to determine whether the community will view such developments as being positive, viable and beneficial to them. and therefore we wish to , the the benefits that will the stakeholders in the unity will expect tain from delivering that value to the tourists and, the positive and negative social and environmental impacts that re expected to result from increased tourism and the related development need to be answered? There is also a need to carry out research into the potential markets mentioned earlier before embarking on significant infrastructural or marketing expenditure. Additional data on what type of tourist may be targeted, where they will come from and what value will they get they will get from would be beneficial to future developers.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Beowulfs Manifestation of Hrothgars Lessons :: Epic Beowulf essays

Beowulf's Manifestation of Hrothgar's Lessons "We have not seen great things done in our time except by those who have been considered contemptible; the rest have failed."   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   --Machiavelli, The Prince            Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In this statement --and in the rest of his major work, The Prince -- Machiavelli attempts to justify the cruelty of a leader; it is necessary, he seems to say, to be feared in order to succeed.   It is doubtful that the renaissance political theorist ever read the poem of Beowulf; in any case, he did not very much with its message. For if its titular hero followed the maxims of Machiavelli, Hrothgar, the leader of the Danes in the poem, contends that it will bring upon pride and, ultimately, Beowulf's downfall. Hrothgar's message is exactly contrasting to that of Machiavelli's. His political theory states that it is necessary to be good-willed to one's people and to refrain from being blinded by pride in order to be a successful leader. Fortunately for Beowulf, during his fifty-year reign as the ruler of the Geats he follows Hrothgar's sagacious lesson; consequently, he is compassionate leader who never lets his pride overcome his judgment.    Throughout his reign as the ruler of the Geats, Beowulf is a benevolent leader - bringing peace and power to his nation as Hrothgar instructs him to after the great warrior defeats Grendel's mother. Hrothgar relates to him a story about the Heremod, King of the Danes, who "brought little joy to the Danish people, only death and destruction" (1711-1712), and that "suffered in the end for having plagued his people" (1720-1721). That is, Hrothgar claims that one cannot be a successful leader unless one is virtuous ruler. Furthermore, he tells Beowulf to "learn from this and understand true value" (1723-1724). Therefore, Hrothgar's intends that this information be carried on with Beowulf. During his final moments, after he kills the treasure hording dragon, Beowulf reflects on his reign over the Geats, and those reflections demonstrate that he understands the importance of virtue and honor. He claims that he "cared for and stood by things in [his] keeping, never fomented qua rrels, never swore to a lie" (2736-2739). His goodwill and righteousness is highly regarded by the warrior, for he continues, "the Ruler of mankind need never blame me [.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

ESP Course at Technical Secondary Vocational School for Construction and Building Trade students Essay

The paper is about ESP course in technical secondary school to construct the trade students. The paper first discuses the meaning of ESP and then tells about its characteristics. It discusses the role of English as a trade and finance language globally and then further narrates the various steps that are being taken by various countries’ governments to promote English for Specific Purposes programs for its workforce. The paper reflects that these governments understand the importance of introducing ESP courses at secondary level so that their people can comfortable choose the vocational field of their own choice. This paper offers a research of made efforts especially by Asian countries. There are three reasons for the emergence of ESP (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001): i) The revolution in linguistics; ii) The demands of a Brave New World and iii) Focus on the learner ESP has some following characteristics (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001): †¢ ESP is to fulfill some particular requirements of the learner. †¢ ESP includes grammar, lexis, skills and varieties of activities. †¢ ESP can have some particular disciplines. †¢ ESP is mainly planned for intermediate or advanced students. †¢ ESP is planned for adult learners who can be at secondary level also that is in a professional work situation. According to Dudley Evans and St. John (1998), there are five major roles for an ESP practitioner: i) course designer; ii) teacher; iii) researcher; iv) collaborator and v) evaluator (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001). David Carter has categorized ESP in three parts (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001): †¢ English with some particular topics †¢ English for Occupational and Academic Purposes both †¢ English as a Restricted Language English with some particular topics transfer from purpose to topics and it is generally used by the scientists. Hutchinson and Waters have made three divisions of English for Occupational and Academic Purposes: a) English for Business and Economics that is EBE; b) English for Science and Technology that is EST; c) English for Social Studies that is ESS. English as a Restricted Language is used by traffic controllers and by waiters (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001). According to Carter (1983) ESP courses have three common features (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001): †¢ Authentic Material †¢ Purpose Related Orientation †¢ Self-Direction Dudley Evans (1997) has argued that ESP should be recommended at secondary or intermediate level. His argument was that at this stage authentic leaning material is very practical that can be modified and unmodified in form which makes it ESP’s main characteristic. It emphasizes on self directed study and research tasks. Most of the students were evaluated on the basis of independent study assignments for doing language preparation for Employment in Health Sciences where the learners needed to make researches and they had to show their area of interest. The students were motivated to make researches by using various kinds of resources including internet (Kristen Gatehouse, 2001). In the 21st century the function of English has become as the language of trade, technology and finance. This language is bonding the rest of the business world for international trade and economic development. The children who belong to this globalize age, it has become necessary for them to get hold of the communication abilities in English as a business and trade language (Dorothea C. Lazaro and Erlinda M. Medalla, 2004). As ESP program is spreading in various countries on different levels, in Czechoslovakia it began in 1991 that aimed to promote the teaching of ESP in the Technical Universities and their allied institutions (Serena Yeo, 1995). Presently the aim of the course is almost same but there are some changes to use it at some broader aspect to make it more influential. It aims to increase the confidence of teachers at secondary level. Various kinds of seminars are conducted by the advisors for the university lecturers and ESP teachers of vocational and specialist secondary schools (Serena Yeo, 1995). In many developing countries of Asia, the altering demands of the labor force are daring the utility of traditional schooling and university education. People want the assurance the skills and the language learned at school will help them professionally. In Japan, ESP is being widely recognized and ESP training programs are being given importance. The main idea is to motivate the students by improving their communication skills which later help them to adopt the professional field of their choice. China is also vigorously executing English proficiency training programs to motivate its people. ESP courses are being introduced at secondary level. In Taiwan, English has become compulsory subject at junior and senior levels in schools. Hong Kong is also following the same trend (Dorothea C. Lazaro and Erlinda M. Medalla, 2004). Now there is a hope that these motivations on various levels in many countries can have a bright future for ESP that is being understood a major effort to build the future of students professionally or vocational level. For making it more successful the role of teacher is also being assumed very significant. So it can be observed that the teaching of ESP at vocational level is very much demanding everywhere in schools.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The American Dream from the Immigrants Perspective

My Question, The conception of the American Dream, I believe is different among native-born Americans and immigrants. Everyone desires to become successful in life and many people will stop at nothing to achieve it. In my case, by moving to the United States, I now have the opportunity to live the American Dream, but my definition may differ from everyone else’s. I believe that The American Dream for Immigrants means getting a good education, working hard, family support, willing to adapt to a new environment, becoming a self-made individual, and having a leader. My main purpose in moving here in the U. S. was to attend an American college to gain a first-class education. With hard work and passivation; I am optimistic that I will find success. Migrant expatriates like me think of the American dream as a freedom to decide our own destiny meanwhile most Native Americans thinks of it as not a â€Å"Dream† but a reality of the concept of getting rich by means of pure luck. As a result, many immigrants are, or become entrepreneurs and own businesses in America, according to a May 2012 study by the U.S. Small Business Administrations office of advocacy. That study, titled Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Small Business Owners and their Access to Financial Capital, found that the business ownership rate of the immigrant workforce is 10.5 percent, which is higher than the 9.3-percent rate for the Native American workforce (Jim Lockwood). I wanted to know how other immigrants fromShow MoreRelatedThe American Dream By James Truslow Adams1130 Words   |  5 PagesFrom the time our Founding Fathers introduced the idea of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, many individuals are now craving to achieve their idea of the American Dream. The American Dream has changed dramatically over the few centuries. During the Founding Fathers’ time, many believed the American Dream meant freedom, equality, and mutual respect. 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