Saturday, August 31, 2019

Documentary Aspects on Kieslowski Fiction

Winter 2012-13 – Free written home-assignments (To be uploaded to Absalon – 1 copy only). (Uploades til Absalon i et eksemplar) Navn (Name) Katarzyna Inez Dawczyk Studienummer (Student ID) qtw401 Telefon (Telephone) 27632783 e-post (e-mail) k. inez. [email  protected] comVed gruppeopgave anfores ovrige navne (Names of other participants in group essays) Navn (Name) : __________________________ Navn (Name) : __________________________ Navn (Name) : __________________________ Navn (Name) : __________________________ Studienummer (Student ID)__________ Studienummer (Student ID)__________ Studienummer (Student ID)__________ Studienummer (Student ID)__________ If the information concerning length below is not filled in correctly, the assignment will be rejected and you will be graded as a †no show†.ANTAL NORMALSIDER: 25 (Number of standard pages of 2400 keystrokes) ANTAL TYPEENHEDER: 60 178 (Total number of keystrokes, including spaces and notes but not cover p ages, bibliographies and appendices). OMFANG AF OPGAVER: L? ngden af en opgave er en del af opgaven – hverken for lange eller for korte opgaver accepteres. LENGTH OF THE ASSIGNMENT: Neither too long nor too short assignments are acceptable. S? T KRYDS (Mark) S? T KRYDS: (just Danish students) Individuel opgave X (Individual essay) Intern censor__________ se i studieordningen) Gruppeopgave _________ (Group essay) Ekstern censor X (se i studieordningen)Studieelement/Modul (Study Element/Module) 47790313-01/ Module 3 (f. eks. 47790316 Modul 4: Skriftlig formidling) Emne (Subject) : Between Documentary and Fiction (f. eks. Japansk Film) Er opgaven fortrolig (s? t kryds) JA___ (Is the essay confidential? ) (mark) Studieordning (s? t kryds): (Curriculum) (mark) : NEJ X (Yes) EKSAMINATOR: Arild Fetveit (Examiner) (No) __ Anden studieordning: _________________________ __Gymnasierettet Kandidattilvalg 2008-ordningen __Grundudd. i Film- og Medievidenskab 2005 – eller 2012__ __BA -tilvalg i Medier og Kultur, Tv? Hum. 2007 __Gymnasierettet tilvalg i Film- og medievidenskab 2007 __Enkeltstaende tilvalg i Film- og Medievidenskab 2007 (Curriculum for Elective Studies in Film and Media Studies 2007) __Kandidatuddannelsen i Filmvidenskab 2008 (Curriculum for the Master’s Programme in Film Studies) x__Kandidatuddannelsen I Medievidenskab 2008 (Curriculum for the Master’s Programme in Media Studies) __Master i Cross Media Communication __Tv? rhumanistisk Tilvalgsfag i Digital Kommunikation og ? stetik 2007 Dato og ar 1. 01. 013 Date and year DOCUMENTARY ASPECTS ON KIESLOWSKI? S FICTION ABSTRACT This paper examines different concepts of documentary and the influence of documentary dispositions on Kieslowski? s fiction that might be found by analysing his selected feature films. Different definitions of documentary in cinema created by various critics and cinematographers will guide the discussions of the ways in which Kieslowski comments on filmmaking, particularly how his fiction might carry the echo of reality which is recorded by documentaries.The paper is an attempt of describing the pattern, where realism is a dominant factor that might create an illusion of reality. This project is important to provide the theory about documentary aspects on Kieslowski? s fiction in order to find similarities and connections between two genres of film that are on the opposite poles. The study provides the unit of analysis about which the information were collected in order to create an understanding of the context. The assignment has got theoretical dimension and analyses.KEYWORDS: documentary, fiction, film studies, Kieslowski, realism, representation Before starting evaluate documentary as a form of film, it is necessary to replay on fundamental questions: what is a film? ; and how film can be understand? The elementary definition of film says that film is a story or event recorded by a camera as a set of moving images and shown in a cinem a or on television. †1 Furthermore, it is a medium and an art and a very complex technology undertaking . 2 Film belongs both to recording media and representative media.The spectrum of film looks like: -the performance art, which happen in real time -the representational art, which depends on the established codes and conventions of language – the recording art, which provides a more direct path between subject and observer: media not without their own codes but qualitatively more direct than the media of representational arts. 3 1 2 www. oxforddictionaries. com James Monaco, â€Å" How to read a film†, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 17 3 Inbid. ,p. 27 Every film contains a range of various messages, which are not always apparent.However, by analysing film, messages can be discovered. Film makes absence presence. Moreover, the special techniques of film-the concentrated close-up-and the special qualities of film projection, make intimate experien ce of face as the sole, cause impression of living reality. 4 DOCUMENTARY John Grierson, a father of documentary used the phrase â€Å"documentary value† in reviewing Robert Flaherty? s â€Å"Moana† in 1926 for a New York newspaper. It was the first occasion on which the word â€Å"documentary† was applied in English language, to this specific kind of film. In English language, the adjective â€Å"documentary† was invited quite late as in 1802 with the modern meaning of its source word â€Å"document† as something written, which carry evidence or information. The contemporary use of â€Å"document† still carries the connotation of evidence. Besides, from the beginning of documentary, a photograph was received as a document and therefore as an evidence. 6 Documentary film has begun in the last years of the IXX century. It seems that, its beginning had many faces, as for some scholars the first documentary was â€Å" Nanook of the North† (1922) about Eskimo life ; some claimed that it was Joris Ivens? â€Å" Rain† ( 1929) a story about a rainy day; for another â€Å" Man with a Movie Camera† (1929) made by Dziga Vertov. 7 So what is a documentary then? A simple answer might be that is a movie about real life. However, it sounds to be too simplified, as there is not such a real life, as a camera can see just a part of real, just a small piece. Irritating are arguments that the camera is a window of world. On which worldthe question is rising? The camera can see just a part of the world, the part of real, the part of life.As a result, it could be said, that documentary movie does its best to represent a part of real life and it does not manipulate about it. 4 Philp Simpson, Andrew Uttern and K. J. Shepherdson, â€Å"Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies†, Routledge, London, 2004, p. 70 5 Brian Winston, â€Å"Claiming the real. The Griersonian Documentary and Its Legitimat ions†, British Film Institute, 1995, p. 8 6 Inbid, p. 11 7 Patricia Aufderheide, â€Å" Defining the Documentary† in â€Å" Documentary Film. A very short introduction†, Patricia Aufderheide, Oxford University Press, New Your 2007, p. In other words, it could be said that â€Å"documentary is defined and redefined over the course of time, both by makers and by viewers. Viewers certainly shape the meaning of any documentary, by combing our own knowledge of and interest in the world with how film-maker shows it to us. †8 From another point of view, Plantiga claims that documentaries are moving picture texts of affairs represented in the world hold in actual world. Sobchack claims that documentary is a subjective relationship to a cinematic object.Patricia Aufderheide arguments in documentaries, â€Å"we expect to be told things about the real world, things that are true (†¦) we expect that a documentary will be a fair and honest representation of someb ody? s experience of reality†. 9 Additionally, she points out â€Å"the truthfulness, accuracy, and trustworthiness of documentaries are important to us all because we value them precisely uniquely for these qualities. † 10 According to Eric Barnouw â€Å"some documentaries claim to be objective-a term that seems to renounce an interpretative role.The claim may be strategic, but it is surely meaningless. The documentarist, like any communicator in any medium, makes endless choices. He selects topics, people, angels, lens (†¦). Each selection is an expression of his point of view. †11 John Grierson defined documentary as the â€Å"autistic representation of actuality† 12, additionally as â€Å"the creative treatment of actuality†. 13 It seems that, by using the term â€Å"creative treatment†, he meant that the documentary go beyond simple recording of reality, as documentary is fulfilled by sort of material creatively.It could be said tha t, documentary is based an authentic recordings with realist tendency, construct on fascination with a visible evidence. The evident share about the discussion of documentary has got Bill Nichols. He arguments that the documentary tradition relies on being able to conduct the impression of reality, â€Å"(†¦ ) a powerful impression. It began with the raw cinematic image and the appearance of movement: no matter how poor the image and how different from the thing photographed, the appearance of movement remained indistinguishable from actual movement. 14 Nichols claims, filmmakers often use in documentary modes of representation, in aim to make questions that are directly depend on historical world, narrative has existed in every known human 8 9 Inbid. ,. 2 Patricia Aufderheide, â€Å" Defining the Documentary† in â€Å" Documentary Film. A very short introduction†, Oxford University Press, New Yor k, 2007, p. 3 10 Inbid. , p. 4 11 Stella Bruzzi,â€Å" Introducti on† in â€Å" New Documentary. A Critical Introduction†, Routledge, London, 2000, p. 4 12 Patricia Aufderheide , â€Å"Defining the Documentary† in â€Å"Documentary Film .A very short introduction †, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007, p. 3 13 Brian Winston,â€Å" Claiming the real. The Griersonian Documentary and Its Legitimations†, British Film Institute 1995, p. 11 14 Bill Nichols, â€Å" Introduction to Documentary†, Indiana University Press, 2001, p. XIII society. 15Moreover, Nichols offers the theory that describes every film as documentary. Even the most fantastic fiction, as it gives evidence of the culture that is reproduced of the people who perform within. As well, he divides documentaries on two kinds: (1) documentaries of wish- fulfilment nd (2) documentaries of social representation. 16 Documentaries of wish- fulfilment are on the shape of fictions, that give expression of people? s dreams and wishes and a sense what peopl e wish, or fear, reality might be or might become. And documentaries of social representation are non-fiction that make the stuff of social reality visible and give representation to aspects of the shared world. Moreover, they deliver a sense of what might be understand as reality, of what is now, or what might become. Documentaries of social representation offer ideas on common world to explore and understand it. Documentaries offer the sensuous experience of sounds and images organized in such a way, they come to stand for something more than mere passing impressions: they come to stand for qualities and concepts of a more abstract nature. †17 15 16 Edward Branigan, â€Å"Narrative, Comprehension and Film†, Routledge, London, 1992, p. 1 Bill Nichols, â€Å" Introduction to Documentary†, Indiana University Press, 2001, p. 1 17 Inbod. , p. 65 According to Nichols, every documentary has its own distinct voice that has got a style. In order to analyse those styles, he provides a typology that enables various modes of documentary.He identified six modes of representation that function as like sub-genres of the documentary as genre itself. These six modes are: the expository mode- emphasizes verbal commentary and argumentative logic, has got more rhetorical and argumentative frame, addresses the viewer directly often with a narrator-voice over commentary (a voice of God, voice of authority) the poetic mode- is more subjective with artistic expression that moves away from objective reality of a given subject, situation or people to take at inner â€Å" truth† can be possessed by poetical manipulation, characters are with psychological complexity he observational mode- coming close as it possible to objective reality, observation of what happens in front of camera and recording it, the filmmakers takes a position of observer and makes impression of not intruding on the behaviour of characters the participatory mode- direct engagement betwe en a filmmaker and subject, the filmmaker becomes a part of the recorded event using the methods of anthropology of going into the field the reflexive mode- increases awareness of the sample of representation in film that shows not just historical world, but also the problems and issues that call into questions.It is the most selfconscious and self-questioning mode of representation the performative mode- direct engagement between a filmmaker and subject, the filmmaker as a participant Presented above modes are well knew in a documentary discussion. However, the critic with Stella Bruzzi towards them, it seems to be well argumentative. She criticises Nichols for suggesting that filmmakers doing documentaries, aim for the ‘perfect representation of the real? and that would fail in this impossible aim as all types of documenters exist at different time.Moreover, his typology of modes seems to be quite weak, cause documentaries very often has got mixed styles of modes. There is n ot such a one mode for one movie. As the result, the question of necessity labelling documentary on modes, arises. Documentary might be also defined as an organised arrangement of images that construct metaphors. Metaphors in movies help in defining and understanding matters in terms how they look or feel with involvement in physical and experiential encounter. Metaphors draw on basic structures of personal experiences to assign values to social concepts. The selection and arrangement of sounds and images are sensuous and real; they provide an immediate form of audible and visual experience, but they also become trough their organization into larger whole, a metaphorical representation of what something in the historical world is like. † 18 Types of Kieslowski? s documentaries psychological portraits In a documentary film about himself â€Å" I`m so-so†, Kieslowski admits that his early films, were made in order to get a common portrait of Polish mental condition.In â⠂¬Å"From the City of Lodz†, he presented people and their sad faces with a dramatic expression in their eyes in order to portray the reality of this city. Lodz is presented as a grey mass of ruins with its citizens lacking of vitality. He shows a factory and an old women who is going to retiring, however she says she would like to continue the work, but she cannot; workers who complain about a lack of support for their orchestra, in streets some men who seems to wander aimlessly. Another movie within psychological portrait is â€Å"The Railway Station†.A movie begins with television news broadcast â€Å"Nasz Dziennik† about production figures on the rise. The presented news is on the contrast to the sad and stony faces of people who are waiting in the station. There is a picture of a slice of Polish reality with so many trains delayed and cancel with not much care about passengers. Crucial is a detail of a camera at the station, with its reference to communist sy stem which seems to be this camera-eye. recording metaphors Kieslowski interest in metaphor, appears also in his documentaries.For example in the one called â€Å"The Office† ( 1966) that deals with intimate burdens in an impersonal routine manner office. In an insurance office in spite of dialogue, there is not people? s lips moving. The emphasis is on what kind of rubber stamps are needed on form. A clerk acts impersonal. The movie is not just a 18 Bill Nichols,â€Å" Introduction to Documentary†, Indiana University Press, 2001, p. 74 picture on bureaucracy, but clearly stands for the whole communist system. Especially the last scene which shows a room filled with documents about everyone.The last scene might be used as a clear metaphor for communist system, where everyone was checked and a state tried to know everything, what a single man did. The communist system seemed to be as this office, an executor of strict control. Another metaphor on society, he used in a d ocumentary â€Å"Factory†, where in close-up shots, he presents the disproportion between the workers and those in power. Also the movie shows the Poland? s economic limitations that time when factory was lacking equipment due to bureaucracy.Personal stories In â€Å"I was a Soldier he interviews 7 men who lost their sight during the war. In this simple story the characters sit and talk about their feelings, in close up shots. Every scene ends by fading to white. Although, the movie ends by fading to black that might be seen as deliver of personal ant-war message. It seems to, be one of the most powerful documentaries, not only for a subject that men presented in movie are blinded during military service in World War II. It is powerful for its understated treatment. The war is a subject of blame of movie? s anti-war expression.The next documentary, where Kieslowski uses the same technique of interviewing people is movie called â€Å"Talking Heads†, which serves also h is interest in human faces. In the movie, he interviews 40 people (he begins with a toddler and ends with a 100 years old women), asking them few elementary questions: Who you are? , Where were you born? , What matters most for you? It seems that, the majority of people sound quite idealistic and overwhelmingly democratic. However, the irony punches a line in a replay of 100-year old women who just simply wishes to live longer.It could be said that the ethnics of Kieslowski? s documentary are based on respect for a single character. He tried to interfere as less as possible in order to respect his character? s privacy. To achieve it, he applied various methods of implementation as like: the documentary observation or interviews. REALSIM- RECORDED PATERN BY DOCUMENTARY Realism is a contentious field of debates across scholars of philosophy, social science, and aesthetics in on-going dialogue about the role of representation: in fine art as like photojournalism for example, and writte n forms as reports or autobiographies.It would seem that, there are two tendencies in realism. The one extensive tendency goes into some material aspect of the physical or social world, the other intensive that penetrates further into the recesses of the soul. 19 The term â€Å"realism† came to cinema from literary and art movement of the IXX century and went against the solid tradition of classical idealism in order to portray the life as it â€Å"really† is. The focus was on ordinary life, indeed the lives of socially deprived people.It seems that, questions of realism in the art came before the discovery of the cinematographic process by brothers Lumiere. The creation of photography brought about realism many different assumptions, precisely about possibilities of realistic representation on pictures. Fox Talbot, one of the precursors of photography, reminisces about seeing in a camera obscura â€Å" the inimitable beauty of the pictures of nature? s painting† (†¦) It could be said that, Talbot uses the phrases â€Å" nature? s painting† and â€Å" natural images† in order to refer the invention derived from earlier observations.Later â€Å" natural images† were patented by Daguerre that could bring out in daguerreotype photographs â€Å"One positive view held photography to be a medium of absolute truth; the negative estimation saw demonic powers at work in this strange apparatus. Both views are closely connected: one is merely the flipside of the other. Both are alike in that they view the outcome of any daguerreotype to be completely independent of human agency. † 20 The important pattern is perhaps, the world â€Å" truth† that is used to describe a photographic image.There is a tendency for perceiving photographic images as displaying something about truth and real word. And film shares with moving photography as a part of its most obvious technical process. Watching those moving pictures mak e in people feelings different than watching paintings on the grounds of reproducing reality. Somehow, photography and film have a special place in the debate of realism. Williams claims that film â€Å"combines elements drawn from pre-existing forms of still photography, painting, the novel (†¦) and the theatre, and all welded together on a specific technological base. 21 Realism in cinema might mean different things. There are various ways of defining and exploring 19 20 Arthur McDowall, â€Å" Realism. A Study in art and thought†, E. P. Dutton& Company, New York 1852, p. 24 http://home. foni. net/~vhummel/Hawthorne/hawthorne_1. 3. html 21 Christopher Williams,â€Å" Realism and the Cinema†, A Reader, London: Routledge 1980, p. 2 cinematic realism in debates. Cinema Verite filmmakers perhaps hope to produce something that is more or less â€Å"true to nature†. Jean-Luc Goddard comments that cinema is not the reflection of reality, but the reality of the reflection.Andre Bazin considers that in order to be realistic, a film must be located its characters and action in historical and social setting. It also worth mentioning that Grierson founded in British documentary movement, three basic principles: -a documentary should photograph the living scene and the living story – it should use original actors and scenes -â€Å"the materials and stories thus taken from the raw can be finer than the created article† 22 Allied to the more formal concept of realism is the notion of truth telling.Realism seems to be obliged to represent social reality and make sense of this realty. Jakobsen discusses five ways to make sense of realism: – – – – Realism can be an artistic aim, the artist considers his work to inhabit Realism can be something perceived ( by others than artist) as realistic Realism can refer to specific periods in history defined by historians and critics Realism is defined by convinced narr ative techniques ( customs of spending time on actions) Realism is defined by the way it motivates style or narrative 23It could be said, the steam of realism was adapted to cinema well, as camera seems to be natural tool for realism as it reproduces what is there, in the physical environment. Cinema makes absence of presence and puts reality up on the screen. Besides, cinema might be an attempt to present a direct and truthful view of real world through its presentation of the character and environment of realm functions in film both on the narrative level and the pictorial and photographic level. Through the narrative structures, physical realism goes into psychological one to address social issues.Scholars, Lapsley, Westlake and Williams divide two types of realism with regard to film: the first one with ideological function that concealment the illusion of realism and the second one with naturalizing function that attempts to use a camera in a non-manipulative way. However, Andr e Bazin supports conversely ideas. Bazin? s argument illustrates that realist discourses not only 22 23 Inbod. , p. 17 Anne Jerslev,â€Å" Realism and Realty in Film and Media†, Museum Tusculanum Press University of Copenhagen 2002, p. 16 suppress certain truth, but also produce other truth.The realist aesthetics recognise the reality-effect produced by cinematic technique in such a way that provides a space for the audience to read the message for themselves. The critical approach to realism in film studies is briefed by two strands of thought, both with roots in formalist conceptions about how film texts which are arranged on abilities to comprehended artistic products. One strand espouses debates in which realist films are departing from the codes and conventions of film practice as like commercial film practice and mainstreams.Another one is modulate by ideological approaches, which treat all mainstream film texts as versions of the classic realist texts which developed i n the XIX century novels. 24 According to these approaches, realism cannot be confined to a particular style of representation as is contingent, in alternation. Important was the development of photography made painting become obsolete, changed the impressionistic mimesis by the empirical objectivity of the photographic image. From the other side, in literature, the early realists called themselves as careful painters of human life, asserting that `art always aims to represent reality?. 5 Although, George Eliot, the realist writer Adam Bede ( in chapter 17) demonstrated her appreciation of difficulty, in particular, how a writer is able to translate the truth into words? Writers took different positions on realism. Guy Maupassant suggests that realists are illusionists, but Henry James favours of terms as impression of life and air reality. In film studies, the post- structuralism position on realism is presented by Collin MacCabe in his well know essay called â€Å"Realism and the cinema: notes on some Brechtian theses†.MacCabe argues in some conventional documentary films, there is metalanguage in the form of voce over narration which provide different versions of reality presented by numerous voices in order to perform a truth-telling function. 26In turn, he claims that fiction film is similarly structured, just with images taking precedence over words. The photographs show to the spectator what happens; the camera provides the metalanguage by situating the spectator within the fictional narration of the film. He also argues that the truth of the situation is created by the images: we as an audience believe what we see rather than what we are told about.In contrast, Bazin advocates a realist cinema that upholds the freedom for spectators to choose their own interpretations of an object, narrator and story. This concept of realism respects 24 25 Julia Hallam, Margaret Marshment,â€Å" Realism and popular cinema†, Manchester University Press, 20 0, p. 4 Julia Hallam, Margaret Marshment,â€Å" Realism and popular cinema†, Manchester University Press, 200, p. 4 26 Inbid, p. 11 perceptual time and space, advocating depth of field and the long take techniques which seem to be at the level of recording as they take place.However, he also adds that just techniques cannot guarantee that a realistic cinema will be a result from its use. 27 Jakobsen discusses five ways to make sense of realism: Realism can be an artistic aim the artist considers his work to inhabit Realism can be something perceived ( by others than artist) as realistic Realism can refer to specific periods in history defined by historians and critics Realism is defined by convinced narrative techniques (customs of spending time on actions) Realism is defined by the way it motivates style or narrative 28REALITY CAPTURED BY KIESLOWSKI? s CAMERA It could be said that, for some â€Å"the real is the same thing as the true. Others describe reality to what exists or happens in the surrounding physical world and at the heart of realism, in all its variations seems to be the sense of actual existence, an acute awareness of it, and a vision of things under that form. 29 Descrates with his theme,† I think, therefore I am†; began the first of many attempts in order to explain reality in terms of mind. Pascal said, man is but a reed, yet he is a thinking reed. 0 â€Å"The reality represented in film is constituted by the so-called represented objects. †31 Plesnar writes that the represented reality of film consists in four ontological levels. The first level comprises represented events-individuals. The second level consists of represented things, which depend on represented events; the third level is designed for represented process and the fourth for strictly relative categories. As cohesion to his four levels, the represented reality in film must be defined as a set of all represented events.Slavoj Zizek presents â€Å"Kies lowski? s starting point was the same as all cineastes in the socialist countries: the conspicuous gap between the drab social reality and the optimistic, bright image which pervaded the heavily censored media. The first reaction to the fact, in Poland, social 27 28 Inbid, p. 15 Anne Jerslevâ€Å" Realism and Realty in Film and Media†, Museum Tusculanum Press University of Copenhagen 2002, p. 16 29 Arthur McDowallâ€Å"Realism. A Study in art and thought†, E. P. Dutton& Company, New York 1852, p. 3 30 Inbid, p. 5 31 Lukasz Plesnar â€Å" Represented Space in film† in â€Å" The Jagiellonian University Film Studies†, Wieslaw Godzic, Universitas Krakow 1996, p. 77 reality was unrepresented, as Kieslowski put it, was, of course, the move towards a more adequate representation of real life in all its drabness and ambiguity-in short, an authentic documentary approach. †32 In the interview with Danuta Stok, Kieslowski says: â€Å"At that time, I was inte rested in everything that could be described by the documentary film camera. There was a necessity, a needwhich was very exciting for us-to describe the world.The communist world had described how it should be and not how it really was. We-there were a lot of us-tired to describe this world and it was fascinating to describe something which had not been described yet. It is a feeling of bringing something to life, because it is a bit like that. If something has not been described then it does not officially exist. So that if we start describing it, we bring if to life. † 33 After the Second World War, the political atmosphere in Poland was extremely tense. Siegel, quoting Norman Davies? work called â€Å"Heart of Europe: A short History of Poland†, adds: â€Å"Poland became a Stalinist one-party. By 1946 the State had taken away over ninety present of Poland? s industrial production, and sweeping land reforms broke up the pre-war Polish estates. Heavy industry was give n precedence over agricultural production, and the general standard of living declined as the private sector was abolished and worker were exploited†¦ Anyone suspected of disloyalty was interrogated, censored and put in prison. † 34 The situation in Poland definitely caused Kieslowski? s pessimist in his movies which was dictated by communist.In the same interview with Stok, he provides examples when he was forced to edit part of reality that he recorded, particularly when the reality in film did not impose the reality that government wanted to provide. However, he tried always to find methods in order to present â€Å"the truth† by tricking the censors, he adds. Realism was what Krzysztof Kieslowski concentrated on, and his fictions have a documentary feel to it. In his movies there is a shift from using the observational camera-work associated with documentary with classical conventions of continuity as like in a questions session in Decalogue 1, between Pawel an d his auntie.This questions session becomes the focus of narrative interest through the use of medium/ close ups and shot of dramatically the curious face of Pawel. 32 33 Slavoj Zizekâ€Å" The fright of real tears. Between theory and post-theory†, British Film Institute, 2001, p. 71 Danuta Stok,â€Å" Kieslowski on Kieslowski†, faber and faber, London 1993, p. 54, 55 34 Annette Insdorf,â€Å" Double Lives, Second Chances†, MIRAMAX, New York 199, p. 9 DOCUMENTARY+/= FICTION When documentary aspects can be visible in Kieslowski? s fiction? How these aspects influence on his fiction? Are these aspects make similarities between his documentaries and fictions?Kieslowski started with documentary as an attempt to describe reality that surrounded him and later moved from describing form of reality to expressing form of reality, in his fiction. However, it seems that, there is number of corn similarities between his documentaries and fictions. Firstly, he shifted his in terest about a man from documentaries to fiction. â€Å"Even the short documentary films were always about people, about what they? re like. † 35( †¦) In addition, in documentaries and fictions his main interest was inner-life. Secondly, almost all his work, apart from this feature Short Working Day ( 1981) that shows the worker? strikers from 1976; are set in the present, although they might have got some links to the past. Kieslowski focus on the present, on the stories of ordinary people, demonstrate them on the grounds of importance. In addition his focus on individual character, an observation of a small portion of reality is well seen not just in documentaries, but also in his fictions. In â€Å"Blue† a melting cube of sugar which proves Kieslowski? s obsession of close up, shows that the main character is not interested in something else then in this cube of sugar.For her, important is what is in front of her, her inner world. He achieved this technique by close-up zooming which creates an illusion of isolation a person of object from the wider context. The same techniques can be notice in his documentary called â€Å"Hospital† where details also play a significant role. A detail has got a significant role to evoke feelings in the audience as it delivers also a metaphysical context. Closing-up on doctors who hold and smoke cigarettes is seem to be reaction that in hospital they do not have medical tools to heal their patients and they use some building tools. The realist paid attention to redundant detail, which often meant writing dialogue that accurately reflected a character? s social identity, as well as, or instead of, forwarding the plot. In production, realist effect was created through props and sets that reproduced everyday life in great detail. † 36 35 36 Danuta Stok,â€Å" Kieslowski on Kieslowski†, faber and faber, London 1993, p. 144 Julia Hallam, Margaret Marshment,â€Å" Realism and popular cinemaâ € , Julia Hallam, Manchester University Press, 2000, p. 20 Furthermore, from his documentaries, he brought kind of simplicity of presenting subjects or person, much avoiding authorial intervention.He never used both in documentaries and fictions his voice over commentary. It would seem that he believed that shooting in close-up characters tell story enough well without the need of commentary. Also from his documentaries, he gained the skills of photographing people? s feelings as like happiness, sorrow, tiredness, hopeless, indecision and hope ( most evident â€Å" I was a Soldier, â€Å" X-Ray†, â€Å" Talking Heads†), and adopted them into his fiction, Clearly seen in the scene of Decalogue 1, when Krzysztof lost his son, when he runs to the church to protest and despair.Thirdly, Kieslowski also used the documentary technique to raise tension and attention in his fiction. This statement supports the view in Blue, when Julie asks the housekeeper lady, why she is c rying and when she hears â€Å"because you are not†. Julie who is normally unresponsive to others; reacts by embracing. And what a camera does in this particular moment? The camera is moving in close, reframes. The camera fallows the action rather than leading it. It seems that the moment might feel as documentary, as cameraman was surprised by Julie? s sudden reaction as audience might be. 7 By using this documentary technique in fiction he was more to fallow â€Å"the focus†. As in documentaries, noticed event that just happened is a part of what makes a documentary feels real. Fallow feeling with the character, not purely indemnification with him or her, but the kind of recognition of what the character feels in his/her world. His fiction (especially Camera Buff, Personel or Decalogue) provide feelings of authenticity and naturalness. Moreover, he often uses â€Å"deep focus† which is a technique that depends on a wide depth of field.Depth of field is a cinem atographic practice, whereas deep focus is a technique in a film. Depth of field refers to the facial length and is achieved by a wide-angle lens. Deep focus, Bazin arguments as a greater objective realism possible. Besides, Kieslowski use to start the first scenes of showing the setting which carry information of the plot. In his documentary â€Å"From the city of Lodz†, at first a spectator sees the fabric, which is a basic and corn place for the characters of movie. The spectator, can observe the same technique in his fiction, for example in Decalogue 1, when at first sees the lake, the place of catastrophe. Kieslowski represents a creation as a form of suffering, an urgency that nothing can impede, like solitary cry before indifference of ? deals. †38The tendency of showing the setting first in movie might be a shadow what is a film about. The same tool is in Decalogue 7, when a movie starts from the off-screen scream of a child who is a main matter of the movie. 37 Steven Woodward, â€Å"After Kieslowski. The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†,Wayne State University Press, Michigan, 2009, p. 154 38 Annette Insdorf,â€Å" Double Lives, Second Chances†, MIRAMAX, New York, 1999, p. 3 In addition, there is also characterisers melancholy which seem to be started in documentaries and was continued in fictions, which has got some philosophical reflections. There is a tendency in both his fiction and documentaries to show the same kind of man who does not how to life and for what reasons. Consequently, cyclical nature of his fiction movies had background in documentaries. For example the documentaries such as: Hospital, Office, Station, Factory might be put in one cycle, as all of them tell the story about Polish national institutions.The documentaries such as X-Ray, I was a Soldier , The Talking Heads might create another cycle. There is a same technique in fiction with the cycles as Blind Chance, Decalogue, Three Colours. In many intervi ews, Kieslowski pointed out that he makes movies in order to register. In 1976 he remarked: â€Å"I started to combine elements of both filmic genres- documentary and fictionfrom the documentary taking the truth of behaviour, the appearances of things and people, and from fiction, the depth of experience and action- the driving force of this genre. †39 39Marek Haltof, â€Å" The cinema of Krzysztof Kieslowski†, Wallfower Press, London, 2004, p. 27 KIESLOWSKI? S AESTHETICS â€Å" Critics, particularly Polish film critics, usually debate the distribution between the ? early realist „and ? mature „metaphysical Kieslowski, and majority of them clearly favour `Kieslowski the realist?. †40 The argument for that might be, he started from detailed representation of reality, later moved this realist form of observations of people to his fictions. , the most evident in Decalogue, where he keeps a camera on a character, often working class character.Kieslowski believed that trough the documentary he can describe the world around him. His documentaries and early fictions show Poland and all its ugliness. He used very cold form of showing the grimy period of Poland under the communist regime whit a main focus on every day? s life of ordinary Poles. The world in which he grow up as an artist, the world with he continually dialogued in his movies, was not stable, free and economically successful like in Western Europe. The suffering of his country in many ways appears in his work.In Decalogue ( 10 parts that refer to the Biblical Ten Commandments), the ugliness of grey urban setting dominates the filmic landscape, together with close-ups of characters who endure these harsh conditions. Kieslowski? s observation of desperate characters, struggled for a better tomorrow, entanglement to the system, living in a communal way of life in grey, tenement blocks give Decalogue the feeling of documentary film. It seems that an inspiration for Decalogue were â€Å"chaos and disorder ruled Poland in the 1980s-ever-where, everything, practically everybody? s life. Tension, a feeling of hopelessness . 41 However, the Decalogue combines both; realism and hallucinatory style, as there is a mysterious zone in this cycle which is represented by a mysterious stranger who appears at crucial moments in different parts. The mysterious stranger is the silent witness and appears symbolically. He brings the element of mystery, something inexplicable also the tone for the series by dramatizing the conflict between the rational and the spiritual. Moreover, in Decalogue, Kieslowski preoccupied with issues of chance, fate, alternative possibilities, and the tentative suggestions of a providential esign to the arc of human life quite similar as Ingmar Bergman. His characters suffer from dislocation, a displaced orientation, a disappear identity. In many ways, Decalogue is a set of the dramatic conditions and tone of isolation, despair, longing what cannot be recovered. â€Å"Chaos and disorder ruled Poland in the mid. 1980s-everwhere, everything, practically everybody? s 40 41 Inbid. , p. XI Danuta Stokâ€Å" Kieslowski on Kieslowski†, faber and faber, London, 1993, p. 143 life.Tension, a feeling of hopelessness, and a fear of yet worse to come were obvious (†¦) I am not even thinking about politics here but about ordinary, everyday life (†¦) I was watching people who did not really know why they were living. † There is also kind of tendency for them going round and round in circles, without achieving what they wish to achieve. The series of Decalogue is also a compact about such questions as what is right, what is wrong? how to be honest? .how to live with the acceptance to the nature? However, considering these questions, it seems that in movies Kieslowski avoids easy answers. Slavoj Zizek argues that Kieslowski? interest in Decalogue is ethic not morality. This is showed by breaking the moral code in each film that the ethical path is to be found. † 42 Moreover, Kieslowski used a form of ethical questioning as opposite to the strict moral code based in religious principles in 10 Commandments. It as an attempt to narrate ten stories about different individuals, caught in some struggles of difficulties of Polish life. The Decalogue is â€Å"the virtualisation of (†¦) life experience, the explosion/ dehiscence of the single ? true` reality into multitude of parallel lives, is strictly correlative to the assertion of the pro-cosmic abyss of a chaotic. 43 Decalogue has got an authentic recording of reality, but also has got acting and stimulation which offers still authentic imagery. â€Å" The major staples of Catholic thought-moral law, sin, guilt, free will, angels; infuse Kieslowski? s world† 44 in Decalogue. The first Decalogue episode presents the death of a child. The film opens with a picture of the frozen lake, suggesting a winter. It seems that the camer a surveys this elemental image in order to avoid the human habitation, depicting despoil universe. A young man seats beside a smoking fire. He is a part of this landscape, the furry collar of his coat add animal look.The same returns at least 4 times in this part of Decalogue and returns in another part. He has no influence on action, however he leads the characters. Again in the first episode of Decalogue, there is the same technique, which Kieslowski used in his documentaries, called the technique of details. For example, Krzysztof is upset when ink that suddenly stains on his paper. It is like liquid is out of the control. This detail is reference to moment when Pawel his son is on the ice and this liquid functions as a foreboding liquid of out of control. 42 Steven Woodward , â€Å"After Kieslowski.The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†, Wayne State University Press, Michigan 2009, p. 44 43 Slavoj Zizek,â€Å" The fright of real tears. Between theory and post-theory†, British Film Institute, 2001, p. 95 44 Steven Woodward, â€Å" After Kieslowski. The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†,Wayne State University Press, Michigan 2009, p. 186 In the third Decalogue episode, there is the same technique of playing with light as for example in his documentary X-Ray. In this documentary light presses on characters? hope and fears. The first shot is of blurred light that comes into focus when a drunk appears. Light is significant foreground here.Later when a police car is fallowing Janusz in stolen taxi, the scene is shot with close-ups of flashing blue light. As in other segments of the Decalogue, close-ups with wider shots filled with variations of lighting tend to isolate characters. If one character is in shadow, the other in light present the formal separation on emotional state. In X-Ray, light press characters? desires. Shots of a wood at sunrise follow, with a mysterious fog rolling through the scene. The abstract impulse is clearly in these sh ots and they act as a suggestion of eternal space cut against images of facing death people.Also the stark contrast between the pastoral rehabilitation centre and the smog-ridden city is showed by visual rhetoric of lighting as well. From the other side, Decalogue can be also analysed trough the terms used by Joseph G. Kickasola: the mosaic structure and Multivalent Consciousness. The mosaic structure is a kind of film composed with small pieces of narrative. Mini narratives come together to form a larger narrative. Narratives are related, and the drama of the film is contingent on these relationships developing and changing throughout the course of the film.The watching elements come together to form a whole. 45 In Decalogue all 10 episodes take place in Warsaw, the same blocks- tenements arrangement, among neighbours who may know each other. There is the connection between characters within the theme. Kieslowski realised argument that â€Å" We perceive our environment by anticip ating and telling ourselves mini-stories† about that environment based on stories already told†. 46 Multivalent Consciousness takes a place when one person in some ways or another has got two or more simultaneous modes. It presents the idea of two people who might be the same person.In Decalogue, there is a mysterious man who once is a man sitting by lake in another part he takes different role. Somehow, there is an experience of a sense of mysterious connection between this one character to another character in particular episodes of Decalogue. â€Å"Tim Pulleine writes that Kieslowski? s perception of the world is saturated with â€Å" East European sinisterness. Even if one agrees with this comment-suggesting that the characters in Decalogue are themselves the products of specific East-Central European historical, political and 45Steven Woodward , â€Å"After Kieslowski. The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†,Wayne State University Press, Michigan, 2009, p. 168 46 Edward Branigan, â€Å"Narrative, Comprehension and Film†, Routledge, London, 1992, p. 1 cultural circumstances- one also has to notice that they face universal, truly Bergmanesque dilemmas. †47 The open structure in Decalogue which is also in Bergman? s movies invite to fallow the action of his characters written in symbols, allusions, ambiguity and a number of motifs such as bottle of milk- sipped, frozen, spilled and delivered.In Decalogue 1, the frozen milk in a bottle seems to be a signal that the ice is thick enough for Pawel to go skating. Ironically, the ice cracks as the water was too warm in a lake, may it be a motif of the bottle of milk de-freezing itself? Furthermore, when Pawel is on the ice-skating, the ink bottle spills on his father? s table, makes uncanny spot. Is that can be read as melted milk? In addition, the motif of milk appears later in another parts of Decalogue. In Decalogue 2, the old doctor goes to buy a bottle of milk when in Decalogue 4 is very similar scene, when father goes to buy a bottle of milk.And the same bottle of milk is prominent in Decalogue 6, when young boy Tomek distributes milk in order to contact with Magda. Magda spills the bottle of milk on a table. Might the spilling of milk occurring as an echoed red stain of blood that fills the washbasin after Tomek? s suicide attempt, when he cuts his wrists? It could be said that, the bottle of milk is a sublimation of the detail which gives a meaning for another scenes as a simple trick of theatrical play. However, Kieslowski says â€Å"When it spills, it means milk? s been spilt. Nothing more (†¦ ) And that is cinema. Unfortunately, it does not mean anything else. 48 Anyhow, this statement does not mean that he disagreed with metaphorical ability of cinema, but he simply found it more difficult for cinema than for example for a novelist to capture the inner life. One of the Kieslowski? s famous actor Jerzy Stuhr says that Kieslowski used a method of perfect dialogue. Two people on the screen are silent, and a third one in the audience knows why. From documentaries, he avoided in his movies over informative dialogue. He weaved the information through character? s behaviour and details which were always important tools of information in his movies. 9 Idziak one of his famous cameraman said about Kieslowski: â€Å"He strongly believes that the look is more important than anything else, he understand to what extent the style affects the story. He understand that the style is the story itself. † 50 Also memories are important part of his movies. This approach to memories, dreams is visible already in his documentaries ( â€Å" I was Soldier†, â€Å" X-ray†) and it is much developed and 47 48 Marek Haltof,â€Å" The cinema of Krzysztof Kieslowski†, Wallfower Press, London, 2004, p. 79 Danuta Stok, â€Å"Kieslowski on Kieslowski†, aber and faber, London 1993, p. 127 49 Steven Woodward, â€Å" After Kieslowski.The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†, Wayne State University Press, Michigan, 2009, p. 70 50 Steven Woodward , â€Å"After Kieslowski. The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†,Wayne State University Press, Michigan, 2009, p. 150 questioned in his fiction. In his documentaries, dreams were treated more as portraits of characters; in fictions they have got more metaphysical and spiritual aspects. From time to time Kieslowski characters confess to odd feelings, strange dreams that dived them in a certain direction. Torkovsky once wrote: â€Å"Time and memory merge into each other; they are like two sides of a medal. Memory is a spiritual concept†¦Bereft of memory, a person becomes the prisoner of an illusory experience; falling out of the time he is unable to seize his own link with the outside world-in other words he is doomed to madness. †51 51 Andrei Tarkovsky, â€Å" Sculpting in Time†, trans. Kitty Hunter-Blair, Austin: University Texas Press, 1986, p. 58 WHY RETRACTION FROM DOCUMENTRY? In the switch to fictions, it is quite clear that Kieslowski started to see the limits of the realist aesthetics. He discovered there was still much in life to be explored. â€Å"Not everything can be described. That is the documentary? s great problem. It catches itself as if in its own trap†¦If I am making a film about love, I cannot go into a bedroom if real people are making love there†¦ I noticed, when making documentaries, that the closer I wanted to get to an individual, the more objects which interested me shut themselves off. That is probably why I changed to features. † 52 In the interview with Stok, Kieslowski gives example about one documentary that he was making during Polish martial law in the early 1980s. He received permission from the lawyer Krzysztof Piesiewicz ( his co-scriptwriter of Decalogue). The case for it was, expose the brutal and unfair sentences of the Polish judges were passing on Piesiewicz? worker clients. â€Å" The moment I started shooting†¦ the judges did not sentence the accused. That is, they passed some sort of deferred sentences which were not in fact, at all painful. † 53 It seems that judges did not want be recorded on film passing unjust sentences. Kieslowski understood that this causes false visions of reality behind him. According to the interview with Stok, Kieslowski claims that he made his films on documentary principles. These principles reflected not to â€Å"unmediated truth, but the premise that films â€Å"evolve trough ideas and not action. 4 However, he still believed in human experiences and describing the reality as his artistic territory although, at the end of his carrier, he moved from social focus to more universal metaphysical ideas of life. It could be said that the instruments of authenticity which he used in documentaries, went toward the task of metaphysical exploration which still caused thrust to his all movies, just i n this case metaphysical thrust of portraying human feelings. Another reasons, seems to be more ethical. Probing into other? s intimacy by referring to the right. â€Å" I managed to photograph some real tears several times.It is something completely different. But now, I have got glycerine. I am frightened of real tears. In fact, I do not even know whether I have got the right to photograph them. At such times I feel like somebody who has found himself a realm which is, in fact, out of bounds. That is the main reason why I escaped from documentaries. †55 52 53 Slavoj Zizek,â€Å" The fright of real tears. Between theory and post-theory†, British Film Institute, 2001, p. 72 Danuta Stok, â€Å" Kieslowski on Kieslowski†, faber and faber, London 1993, p. 127 54 Joseph G.. Kickasola â€Å" The films of Krzysztof Kieslowski†, Joseph G. Kickasola,continuum, London 2004, p. 3 55 Slavoj Zizek, â€Å"†The fright of real tears. Between theory and post-theor y†, British Film Institute, 2001, p. 72 Zizek argues that Kieslowski supplements the prohibition to depict the intimate moments of real life with false images of fiction. He adds that Kieslowski moved from documentaries as when somebody films real life scenes in documentary, people ( actors) play themselves and he claims that the only way to depict people beneath their protective mask of playing it, paradoxically is making them directly play a role into fiction. It seems that, in Zizek? s augment fiction is more real than the social reality of playing roles.He supports the view that if in Kieslowski? s documentaries, the characters seem to play themselves, then his fictions cannot but appear as documentaries about the brilliant performance. 56 Zizek also makes very crucial questions in order to analysing Kieslowski? s. He asks; if his escape from documentaries to fiction was dictated by the ? fright of real tears? , by the insight into obscenity of directly performance real li fe intimate experiences? How fictions are even in a way even more vulnerable than reality? If documentaries show the hurt the personal reality of the character, that fiction intrudes into and hurts dreams themselves?Documentary has got its limits; â€Å"not everything can be described†, he said in â€Å" Kieslowski on Kieslowskim†. Turning camera on external events cannot capture the intimate experiences such as making love or dying he said. Analysing his fictions, the question this arises: â€Å"Could a feature describe better than a documentary? † The dominant characteristic of the fiction film is that it represent something what is imaginary of the director. However, the feature representation seems to be more realistic then in another field of art such as painting or theatre as those show effigies of objects, their shadows.When in a fiction, the setting and actors represent the â€Å"real† situation even if they played it of the certain number of film ed conventions which we recognize from our life. In â€Å"Blind Chance† , Kieslowski composed three version, which seems to begin as a dream; the young man running to catch the train to Warsaw. The movie starts, that the main character is screaming as he lost his father who wished that he becomes a doctor, however he loses his wishing whist he was dying, he tells to Witek: â€Å"You do not have to do anything†. And somehow his father? death frees him from necessity. Later in the same part he becomes a Party activist, in the second part he gets lost and in third one, he got marry, become a doctor and suddenly die in an aircraft explosion. â€Å" Witek 1 is shot with a Tarkovskian adherence to ? real time? : no time is edited out of any of the 56 Slavoj Zizek,â€Å" The fright of real tears. Between theory and post-theory†, British Film Institute, 2001, p. 75 sequences. The life of Witek 2 is edited more conventionally, highlighting the â€Å" key† moments † (†¦) The final version of Witek? life is edited most conventionally from all, virtually in the no-nonsense manner of a television movie. † 57 The end of the movie confers a sense of fantasy. â€Å" By beginning Blind Chance with Witek? s scream and by developing opposite scenarios that logically require a middle one to complete and close them, Kieslowski gives to his film a structure that preserves it from succumbing entirely to the dictates of chance. † 58 Start with a close-up of a man who screams â€Å" No† with a moving camera into darkness of his throat. This might be a scene of Witek? s flashback.Witold? s scream at the beginning, might be a replay on the end of the film, when a plane? s explosion occurs. Blind Chance seems to be more of the same elevated to an iconic Munch-like open-mounted scream with which the film starts, and exactly this scene realises at the conclusion of the film, when it means the death of the main character. As the res ult, the movie might be described as the binary of â€Å"catch† or â€Å" miss† the train: missing the train with positive outcome, missing the train with negative outcome, corresponding to the third story when he caught the plane.Catching or missing, determined his death. 59 The term Forking Paths created by Joseph G. Kickasola, where one character proceeding along a particular narrative trajectory that divides in several directions. One path might be a true, and the others just are alternative endings. 60 This term suits for Blind Chance as outcome the moment of contingency. Alain Masson refers to the construction of Blind Chance as a dilemma or trilemma, where Kieslowski invites the audience to puzzle over whether Witek? s experiences device from choice, chance or perhaps destiny.As he said in â€Å" I? m So-So`, â€Å" We are sum of several things, including individual will, fate and chance which is not so important. It is the path we choose that is crucial. â₠¬ 61 57 Paul Coates, â€Å" Kieslowski, Politics and the Anti-Politics of Colour†: From the 1970s to the Three Colours Trilogy† in The Red and The White. The Cinema of People? s of Poland†, Wallflower Press, Great Britain, 2005, p. 191 58 Inbid. , p. 192 59 Steven Woodward, â€Å"After Kieslowski. The Legacy of Krzysztof Kieslowski†,Wayne State University Press, Michigan 2009, p. 122 60 Inbid. , p. 69 61 Annette Insdorf,â€Å" Double Lives, Second Chances†, MIRAMAX, New York 199, p. 59 CONCLUSION In Poland in mid-1970s and 80s, Kieslowski was a leading documentary film- maker with the following output :The Office ( 1966), The Photograph ( 1968), From the City of Lodz ( 1969), I Was a Soldier ( 1970), Factory ( 1970), Before the Rally ( 1971), Refrain ( 1972), Between Wroclaw and Zielona Gora ( 1972), The Principles of Safety and Hygiene in Copper Mine ( 1972), Workers? 71: nothing about us without us ( 1972), Bricklayer ( 1973), X-Ray ( 1974), Curri culum vitae ( 1975), Hospital ( 1976), From a Night Porter? Point of View (1977), I don? t know (1977), Seven Women of Different Age ( 1978), Station (1980), Talking Heads ( 1980),Seven days a Week ( 1988). Kieslowski started from documentaries as a fight for a representation of the lack of an adequate image of social reality in Polish cinema caused by Communist regime. It seems that, he moved into fiction, as he noticed that when he let go of false representation and directly approach of reality, he lost reality itself in his documentaries. Notably, his documentary achievement has got unquestionable reflections on his fiction.Precisely, to feature films, Kieslowski moved â€Å"a criterion of authenticity† visible for example in â€Å" Personel†, where he made significant remark toward â€Å" authentic cinema†. For this production, he used improvised dialogue within the tradition of Italian neorealists, to cast non-actors for majority of roles. In the interview with Stok, he describes, how characters are true as they contradict the conventions of filmic stereotypes. Moreover, the next important tool in his movies is the tool of detail. Kieslowski, already started using this tool in his documentaries, whereby he developed within fiction.A detail in Kieslowski? s films, it is not just a construction of reality, but the detail plays crucial role in the transmission of reality. Furthermore, analysing Kieslowski? s films on the grounds of its documentary elements in his fiction, it is also important to interlace them with the term of naturalism which is closely associated with realism and which was not mentioned before in the paper. Naturalism fist came in the theatre of the nineteenth century with the work of Andre Antonie. He created a method of acting in order to get the actors to move away from the theatrical gestural.It means that the actors supposed to act as the audience was not there and audience feels as if it witnessing slice-of-life realism, which was also crucial for Stanislavsky? s method of acting. Actors enter the personae of their characters in order to not represent themselves. The essays describes the importance of naturalism, as Kieslowski? s actor appears to play in very natural and realist way and Kieslowski precisely stylised a life in a film. Especially, the Decalogue delivers naturally the conclusion for Poles- â€Å"they speak just like us†. The reality of what that might be seen in front of eyes, can drives nto the illusory nature of representation. It could be said that in this way, naturalism has got also an ideological effect of naturalizing. Therefore, it gives a surface image of reality. Always, aesthetic, social and moral concerns work together to deepen Kieslowski? s films. â€Å"Kieslowski? s work was prescient in all kinds of ways, that developed innovative narrative forms and stylistic methods to address pressing existential, moral and political issues ( †¦) with references to his social context and the tensions and conflicts that surrounded him. † 62Emma Wilson describes Kieslowski as a director of intimacy and interiority.Kieslowski in his movies guid

Friday, August 30, 2019

Environmental and Ecological Issues in Robyn Eckersley’s Perspective Essay

Robyn Eckersley, a renowned environmentalist believes that ecocentric theorists do not claim that anthropocentrism is the sole or original cause of the ecological crisis. She also reflects that environmental crisis is the outcome of humanity’s joyful and spontaneous instincts due to repressive social and psychic division of labor. As a matter of fact, she contends to the idea that it is the rise of material paradigms that people are in need of reconciliation with nature. She notes that utilitarianism in its very state undermined the essence of the environment which is why the veil of knowledge worn by the society is covering them thus colonizing the life-world. Eckersley examined the deontology of ethics inclined with the aim of making the recent topographical shifts within the field that are less â€Å"unknown to us (Eckersley). † To note, she states â€Å"utilitarian and eudaimonistic or therefore theological moral philosophy derives difference between good and evil from the effects which actions and attributes by nature have for the form of life of the actor and his environment (Louden). † In further illustration, she meant that the good deeds can conveyed as those that are considerably favorable effects for human welfare, while those that bring about the opposite are otherwise. Hence, this connotation also falls on the deliberative state of intuitive and formalistic ethics. Although Eckersley favors a rights discourse as a way to include the natural world in a liberal system, she admits that, â€Å"†¦the rights discourse becomes considerably strained (in all its dimensions) when we come to consider ecological entities (Eckersley). † She defines multiple human activities to be the cumulative result of the ecosystem’s components and that today’s approach towards this epidemic will not ensure sustainability. In essence, she is not against any form human-driven doings; however, she is not favor of the manner that it handles the resources that in the light provides for the very existence of human beings. The harvesting of the planet’s resources is seen to be detrimental to the future of the ecosystem and if such is prolonged, survival will be provided only for the few. Socialist critique of liberalism in comparison with the ecological state will differ in terms of morality and the deontology of ethics. It is apparent that not all deeds are the same when it comes to utilitarianism, sometimes, the ecosystem, being unable to air its share of sentiments, id reprimanded and oftentimes taken for granted (Rice). Humans are subject to care for those of its kind and the environment is not considered to be a part of it. In consequence, such is an irony, given that the human beings live and survive with the help of a healthy ecosystem—without the ecosystem, the members of the society will not be able to live. Policies, regulations and management may have changed over time. If compared to the previous century where not all are aware of the threat and the challenge of sustainability, the contemporary era now gives regard to narrowing the problems and eradicate or at least moderate in the utilization of resources provided that there is a massive chance that it may no longer be available in the next 100 years. The signs of climate change is a proof that laws would need to focus on combining good deeds not only for the people that it serves but also to detain the precautionary measures that may possibly harm the humanity.Accordingly guidance is considered necessary on the position of ecosystem mechanism that may be at risk (Rice). Works Cited Eckersley, Robyn. â€Å"Liberal Democracy and the Rights of Nature: The Struggle for Inclusion. † Environmental Politics 4. 4 (1995). Louden, Robert B. â€Å"Toward a Genealogy of Deontology. † Journal of the History of Philosophy 34. 4 (1996). Rice, Jake. â€Å"Can We Manage Ecosystems in a Sustainable Way? † A symposium on Sustainable Management of Marine Living Resources 60. 1-2 (2008). .

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Public Health System Essay

Health policy and entire health care system in both the USA and Great Britain create a core for national quality standards. Dealing with health as a key condition for local and global human activity representatives of medical spheres in these two countries on opposite sides of the ocean have long-term experience which differs greatly in terms of functional, financial, and social issues. Financing. In the UK financing of the industry is done out of taxation paid by people on regular basis. 130 billion of dollars annually are spent to cover expenditures of healthcare system: paying out salaries for physicians, facilitating hospitals, providing latest medical technology and treatment (Hadikin, 2003). British health policy does not require from patients to pay on the scene since it has already been done automatically by their tax procedure. Sometimes those having problems with eyes or teeth will have to pay very small amounts to cover the cost for particular tests. However, such co-payments are not common in the UK and are covered by government for special society layers including aged and young people, special patients with chronic diseases, etc. The state pays directly to doctors and cover fees for a wide range of hospital services (Hawkes, 2007). In the USA payments for healthcare are done through private insurance system. Many believe that British system is more convenient since patients receive â€Å"free at the point of service† medical treatment. American healthcare sector is employee-employer based (54%) with partial governmental funding (46%) for the poor, the disabled, Native Americans, and elderly adults. Average American spends annually approximately $6,400 for healthcare where $2,880 is covered by government, $2,675 by private insurance, and more than $800 paid directly to doctors or other additional services. Unlike the US with population equal to more than 302 million people, the UK with its 61 million of citizens spends $2,720 each year to be confident in high-quality medical treatment. Described in detail, $2,370 are covered by British government received through national taxation and other $350 go directly from patients for extra services required (Sultz & Young, 2008). Challenges. Over years health policy in Great Britain has been facing significant obstacles in its strive for providing high-quality national medical service. First of all, due to the fact that all costs having to do with healthcare are covered through taxation without going directly to doctors on daily basis physicians tend to be less efficient. On the other hand being confident in that medical system is paid for by the government people with light complaints which can be easily treated at home with help of drugs purchased in the nearest drugstore immediately make an appointment unreasonably disturbing physicians who may have very urgent problems to take care of. Also, being structurally located under the government health policy in the UK must follow the rules set from above. That’s why if the government representatives decide that specific drug is cost-ineffective they may choose not to cover such medications. It is especially true for drugs against cancer which have always been extremely expensive with only several month effect and certain plastic surgeries which are considered to be addition features of healthcare and may never be crucial to health (Hawkes, 2007). Sadly enough, Great Britain tends to keep young people and those less than eighty years old in focus. The thing is that significant number of people in their eighties tend to be seriously ill whereas average life expectancy in Britain reaches 79. Unlike the US, where doctors do their best to save people no matter how old they are, English government refers to limited financing and number of able-bodied people who have the potential but need treatment. Unfortunately, anti-cancer treatment costs a lot and in majority of cases prolongs life of an aged person for couple of months only. In the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is authorized to decide whether specific drug in particular case is worth to be covered and normally they conclude that it is not. One more problem encountered by health policy in Britain again has to do with money issue. Governments have specific amount of money to spend annually on a person who has health problems. However, costs for drugs and medical treatment are constantly escalating and quality of service, therefore, is gradually dropping making this proportion more and more blurred (Hawkes, 2007). The biggest challenge for American citizen regarding health policy is a necessity to pay bills for all services they receive including various tests, prescriptions, visits to physicians, etc. Regardless of the fact that this tradition has a long-term history it has caused enormous inequity between the rich and the poor. Having created two healthcare bodies called Medicare and Medicaid which handle financial issues of old and poor people accordingly, they are far from being perfect. Firstly, people with membership in one of these institutions should go through never-ending bureaucratic procedures that require time and effort valuable for both aged people and low-income society representatives. Secondly, having received long-awaited registration they are provided only with basic services and typically have almost no choice while selecting doctors and hospitals (Barr & Dowding, 2008). In terms of care organization any insurance-based system including American one provides care upon request. For instance, when a person gets heart attack s/he is transported to the hospital, receives necessary medical treatment, and post-traumatic prescription. In Great Britain similar procedures are planned in advance. Thus, British doctors should calculate how many beds for what kinds of patients should be provided, how much vaccine should be purchased to immunize specific number of people and so on. Both American and British health policies have one thing in common having to do with technical issues of the system. Speaking about response times, neither of these states has a set regulation regarding standard response time applicable to all locations under any conditions. There exist certain agreed rules between providers of emergency service and official authorities that instruct required response times. Significant number of these regulations, however, have to do with private emergency service providers who cover only small portions of society. Both Americans and British have concluded that every location throughout these two countries should be provided with 8-minute medical help. (Davis, 2005) Irrelevant of the absence of set rules regarding response times cardiac arrests are considered to be the most urgent and demanding emergency calls in entire emergency service system. Majority of people who experience cardiac arrest should be provided with proper treatment including electric shock with ALS intervention within the first minutes. Figures show, that the sooner the ambulance arrives the more chances it has to save the patient from permanent brain death and irreversible processes which start occurring in human body shortly after the cardiac arrest. It happens on very rare occasions that the person survives receiving help within more than ten minutes. (Davis, 2005) Taking apart from cardiac arrest, response times for normal emergency calls that have to do with physical injuries or wide range of attacks vary from 12 to 14 minutes. Specifically, Wales show the worst result ever obtained in Great Britain in terms of response time and emergency service. According to recent statistics average Welsh emergency service provider arrives not earlier than 20 minutes after the emergency call. British authorities claim that it is totally unthinkable to demonstrate such low performance and that this part should be immediately improved. (Brindley, 2008) In conclusion it would be appropriately to note that both health policies have their advantages and drawbacks as basically any other system. The following table highlights key features of American and British healthcare sectors: Health policy in the UK Health policy in the USA Advantages Drawbacks Advantages Drawbacks Every member of society is provided with medical care Random cases of poor quality service due taxation payments as opposed to direct ones Better consumer choice provided due higher cost for medical services Only insured ones get the best service and treatment Because of sufficient NHS funds treatment and drugs cost less Some misuse medical treatment due to longing for communication and company (especially old people) Active implementation of latest technological equipment and scientific innovations in medical sphere Many retired people choose to work since it’s the only way to receive medical insurance Patients receive decent treatment regardless of their age, social status, or level of income Many claim they do not receive the right to choose a hospital or a doctor they like Patients visit hospital only in cases when it is really necessary, reasonable, or urgent Prices for medical treatment and drugs are higher because of debates and policy on governmental levels References Barr, J., & Dowding, L. (2008). Leadership in Health Care. London: SAGE Ltd. Breen, N., Woods, J., Bury, G., Murphy A. & Brazier, H. (1999).   A national census of ambulance response times to emergency calls in Ireland. Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine, 17, 392-395. doi:10.1136/emj.17.6.392 Brindley, M. (2008). Ambulance Response Times Worst In UK. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from WalesOnline Health News Web site: Davis, R. (2005). The Price Of Just A Few Seconds Lost: People Die. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from USA Today Web site: Hadikin, R. (2003). Effective Coaching in Healthcare. London: Books for Midwives. Hawkes, N. (2007). NHS’s Advantages And Shortcomings. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from Frontline Web site: Sultz, H., & Young, K. (2008). Health Care USA: Understanding Its Organization and Delivery. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

A bureaucracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

A bureaucracy - Essay Example Specialty is the first characteristic of bureaucracy as outlined by Max Weber. Each employee has official jurisdictional and reinforced areas of work as shown by Office Space in the company Initech. Each clerk has a specialized job description, though some are ranked higher than others, making Weber’s hierarchy of offices the second characteristic of bureaucracy. Lumbergh in the movie was seen as Initech’s head. Weber’s theory would put him at the top of the pyramid. Bureaucracy according to Weber had several different levels of management but very few leaders in a pyramid fashion. With Lumbergh at the top, Peter Gibbons was right below him and was followed downwards by Michael Bolton, Samir and Milton. His position at the bottom of the pyramid meant that Milton had no authority over any employee. Due to this pyramid management, employees hold grudges against higher ranked employees. Lumbergh was particularly menial for his leadership role. Bureaucracy should be regular and follow given rules and regulations. Workers at Initech were even instructed on the type of stapler to use and were required to regularly fill out TPS reports. They were expected to dress nicely except on Hawaiian shirt day, as well as regulate their radio usage, get to work on time and park on designated spots. As Weber puts it, Initech used rules and regulations to thrive and operate in a completely predictable fashion. Weber argues that bureaucracy seeks the ultimate technical competence beyond following rules and regulations. Bob and Bob were hired by Initech to evaluate the technical qualification and specialization of its workers thus needed to evaluate the effectiveness all employees. Bureaucracy is not interested in the employee as a person but rather the employee’s technical competence. Impersonality is confirmed in a bureaucracy’s work area as Weber deduced. Lumbergh was not

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The Education System in Great Britain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Education System in Great Britain - Essay Example Assessment Reform Group, 2006 research argues that various teaching practices rely on the understanding of language and socials behavior with the learning environment. The strategies in teaching frequently recommend for the use of various teaching aids to ensure that all students are incorporated especially those that need special attention like the autism students. There should be a clearly defined teaching structure and daily routine entangled with the use of visual cues where appropriate. According to Broadfoot, teachers should ensure that they use unambiguous classroom language to make clear their teaching and enhance proper understanding of the students in all their teachings. Clear explanations and regulations in classes, playground, and other social rules should be emphasized by the teachers. Additionally, there should be sharing of the purpose of activities and assessment as well as their intended outcomes.Assessment Reform Group, 2006 research argues that various teaching pr actices rely on the understanding of language and socials behavior with the learning environment. The strategies in teaching frequently recommend for the use of various teaching aids to ensure that all students are incorporated especially those that need special attention like the autism students. There should be a clearly defined teaching structure and daily routine entangled with the use of visual cues where appropriate. According to Broadfoot, teachers should ensure that they use unambiguous classroom language to make clear their teaching and enhance proper understanding of the students in all their teachings. Clear explanations and regulations in classes, playground, and other social rules should be emphasized by the teachers. Additionally, there should be sharing of the purpose of activities and assessment as well as their intended outcomes.   Assessment Reform Group, 2006 argues that learning is one of the most basic processes in a personal life course. It is second to one o f the most contrived processes, the assessment of that learning. Most developed countries have been making efforts to pursue reliable and valid means of assessing peoples’ learning, a process that generates a high volume of published discourse and not infrequently, dissent as well as the documentation of various assessment policies which are inclusive of practices and theories. Some of the discourses include the ways learners can move the next stage ensuring their learning progress.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Validity, reliability and generalisation in the research process Essay

Validity, reliability and generalisation in the research process - Essay Example In addition, the essay provides recommendations, which include a series of questions that could be incorporated into a questionnaire aimed at finding out why post graduate students choose to study HRM. In management research, validity, reliability and generalisation should be addressed in research with a lot of caution because it is tricky to distinguish them precisely. For instance, validity is defined as the relationship between test results on research with other objectives that the study seeks to achieve or measure (Wainer & Braun, 2013: 40). Therefore, researchers should clearly outline their research objectives. On the other hand, Schensul, LeCompte and Schensul (1999: 271) define reliability as the consistency of research results and the ability of such results to be replicated by other researchers. It is worthy to note that a measure may be reliable, but such a measure’s reliability does not ensure its validity (Rubin & Babbie, 2010: 87). It is imperative that business and management researchers should consider reliability and validity separately. This is because reliability is about consistency while validity is about truthfulness in measures (Jackson, 2013: 90). On the other hand, seeking to ensure reliability in management may distort the purpose of a study. This is because a researcher will design a measurement tool or process that will ensure the results obtained from such a study will be replicated by other researchers. This leads to a researcher’s slight deviation from the original purpose of the study, which may in turn, adversely affect validity. Separately, generalisation may be used in businesses and management research to contribute to theory. Therefore, in consideration of generalisation, management research should be designed so that it is properly conversant with theory to contribute to

Monday, August 26, 2019

Marketing Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Marketing Research - Essay Example For ordinary research, the problem definition is comprised of a description of the background situation and the statement of the problem. In the context of market research, particularly in the case of applied market research in a practical setting, problem definition refers to an entirely different process. According to Malhotra (1996), â€Å"Problem definition involves stating the general problem and identifying the specific components of the marketing research problem. Only when the marketing research problem has been clearly defined can research be designed and conducted† (p. 47). Gibson (1998) stated that â€Å"Problem definition is best thought of as solution definition – the selection of a domain likely to be rich in ideas to solve the problem† (p. 5). Most recently, Wild & Diggines (2010) said that â€Å"Problem definition is the most important step in a research project†¦often more important than its solution† (p. 42). As may be deduced, there is no one hard and fast definition of problem definition in market research, except the stress on its importance to effect a solution, and from this therefore it must be said that problem definition should result in an actionable research plan. Malhotra (2011) provides the following diagram and example of a marketing research problem defined: Source: Malhotra (2011, p. ... etermining the various needs of automobile users and the extent to which current product offerings were satisfying those needs.† Note that the broad statement includes the target of the research (i.e., automobile users), the object of research (their needs), and the subject of research (the extent to which the needs were satisfied). To complete the problem definition, the specific components are as follows: Component 1: What needs do buyers of passenger cars, station wagons, and sports utility vehicles seek to satisfy? Component 2: How well do existing automobile product offerings meet these needs? Component 3: Is there a segment of the automobile market whose needs are not being adequately met? Component 4: What automobile features does the segment identified in number 3 desire? Component 5: What is the demographic and psychographic profile of the identified segment? (Malhotra, 2011, 2-17 to 2-18). The problem definition should be neither too wide that the problem becomes vagu e, nor too narrow that important considerations are left out. A well formulated problem definition should be able to answer the following basic questions: (Zikmund & Babin, 2006, p. 122) What is the purpose of the study? How much is already known? Is additional background information necessary? What is to be measured? How? Can the data be made available? Should research be conducted? Can a hypothesis be formulated? As to subject matter, Emanuel H. Demby, formerly of MPI Marketing Research Inc in New York (in Marketing News, 1975, p. 8), marketing problems may be classified into four, namely: Market targets – understanding the who and why of the potential consumer Product positioning – critical benefits that will create a strong edge in the target market Decision-making process – should

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Qatar sporting legacy Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 15000 words

Qatar sporting legacy - Dissertation Example Having won the bid for the 2022 FIFA World Cup made Qatar the highlight of sports news, as the nation continues to establish and consolidate its position as a prime sporting destination. In line with the economic potential of hosting local and international sports events, the present study aims to determine the social, political and economic factors as the foundation that helped build Qatar's sporting legacy. A qualitative approach has been utilized, wherein data collection was processed using interview responses as primary sources, whereas journals, and the like, have been used as secondary sources. The study focused on answering the questions, (1) Can Qatar be a viable venue for holding sports events (2) Does Qatar have the necessary sporting infrastructure, economic and political stability to sustain its sporting legacy on a long term basis, (3) Can other Asian countries sustain a sporting legacy, similar to what Qatar has done. The researcher was able to determine that Qatar has the resources and the capacity to become a prime venue for holding both international and local sports events, as well as sustain its sports legacy on a long term basis. This is due to the country’s stable economic and political state, as supported by the nation's passion towards sports. It has also been found that other Asian economies would only be able to emulate Qatar's sporting legacy, given that the factors necessitated in creating one would be present. Chapter 1 Introduction Sports stand to command a pivotal place in Qatar’s social and national life. One primary reason behind this phenomenon is the fact that people in the Middle East do have a special predilection for outdoor activities. The sports legacy of Qatar is a unique mix of the new developments as well as the age old traditions. This is why, since the last two decades, the government of Qatar has embarked on a unique policy to promote the local and international sports in Qatar (QSC, 2010). The primary thrust of this policy is to introduce and support new sports like golf, soccer and tennis, while at the same time encouraging traditional sports like camel racing and horse racing. There is no denying the fact that modern Qatar can proudly boast of some of the best, world class sports facilities. Qatar not only intends to promote sports within the country, but also aspires to evolve into a popular tourist destination. The hosting of international sports events and competitions by Qatar has stimulated and enhanced the interest of the local population in sports (QSC, 2010). The awarding of 2022 FIFA World Cup to Qatar came as a surprise to most of the Asians, Americans and Europeans. However, the fact is that this Gulf

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Criminal Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 10

Criminal Justice - Essay Example However, the exacting of the inmate’s freedoms, liberties and choices must be balanced, so that the social or public order is not disturbed. The public order is the prison the inmate is serving in. It is in the interest of social order that every inmate is to be accorded treatment or medical attention, as a way of upholding the US’ civil rights, justice and social order. However, room is left for inmates to exercise choice. Nevertheless, the declining of medical attention is seen to contravene public order in the event that the patient’s medical condition can affect social order. Mental illness, communicable diseases and urgent and important vaccines to an outbreak are some of the conditions which may directly affect public order. The crux of the matter above is that if the inmate is not accorded medical attention when he is in any of the three conditions above, he is likely to endanger the lives and health of other inmates and prison staff as well. Therefore, the exacting of forceful treatment will be being done for the good of the inmate, the rest of the inmates, the prison staff and US (or state) interests. It must also be remembered from the outset that life belongs to the state. Because of this, declining medical attention to a point where the life of the inmate may be in danger is akin to and amounts to breaching public order. No one has a right to take his life, even if it is by resisting medical attention. The two polarities (individual rights and public order) can be balanced by passing a legal injunction which would give prison authorities the power to administer treatment to specific medical conditions, if the inmate resisted. Some of these specific medical conditions that would bestow power on prison authorities include the refusal to receive medical attention because of mental derangement or psychological

Friday, August 23, 2019

Macroeconomic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Macroeconomic - Essay Example In addition, BBC News Business (2011) asserts that there is a high rate of unemployment in the United Kingdom that requires the government to take comprehensive measures if the situation is to be reversed. The united kingdom government has taken some fiscal and monetary policy measures in an attempt to reverse the economic situation. According to Warrell (2012), the government has reduced its spending by outsourcing security and other services from private firms as one of the chief fiscal policies. However, several stakeholders claim that the government is not doing enough, and the Institute of Directors is calling for further cuts in public spending, and reduced taxation, which is the other approach to fiscal policy (O’Connor, 2012). In addition to the above mentioned fiscal policies, the United Kingdom government has taken key monetary policy approaches including inflation targeting and quantitative easing. According to BBC News Business (2012a), the central bank lowered the base lending rates in order to encourage banks to lend more to individuals and corporations; however, despite a low base lending rate of 0.5 percent, banks did not increase their lending and the central bank may raise the rates to 0.75 or 1 percent. According to BBC News Business (2012b), the Bank of England decided to use quantitative easing as the other monetary policy approach in order to reverse the economic situation. In early 2009, the bank injected  £75 billion into the economy, which had increased to  £200 billion by the end of that year. In October 2011 and February 2012, the bank added  £75 billion and  £50 billion respectively to bring the total amount injected into the economy using the quantitative easing approach to  £ 325 billion. The United Kingdom reduced its expenditure in an attempt to redeem the national economy and pay of its debts, which is a more preferable approach as compared to the other viable option of increasing taxation.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Confucianism, Legalism, Daosim Essay Example for Free

Confucianism, Legalism, Daosim Essay China was built by three ancient philosophies. Each has its own meanings; each had its own ways of seeing the nature of human beings, society and the universe. These three philosophies were Legalism, Confucianism and Daoism. Although they each have many differences their purpose is the same, to make society better, to end conflict. Confucius started Confucianism. He felt that if rulers were honest and children respected their parents everything would fall into place. Human nature was considered neutral and it was what you did that determined whether it was good or bad, each person had a role that they must follow. Freethinking was encouraged. Legalisms approach was much more forceful, books were burnt and freethinking was discouraged. People were not inspired by their leaders but scared of them, human nature was considered bad; therefore rules and harsh punishments took place. Unlike the rest of the philosophy’s Daoism’s approach is much less focused on politics. The idea that humans needed to be in harmony with nature took place; it’s all about the balance of good and bad, yin and yang. Each Philosophy has its own view of what human nature should be. Daoism believes that human nature is good, Legalism believes that human nature is bad and people need to be controlled by laws and punishments in order to prevent them form doing wrong. Confucianism believes that human nature is neutral, and its is what you do in life that determines whether it is good or bad.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

High blood pressure Essay Example for Free

High blood pressure Essay Smoking does stunt your growth which, as well as it giving high blood pressure. When someone hangs around a smoker, they are actually inhaling the smoke, which would make them a passive smoker. A passive smoker is worse than actually being a smoker because breathing the smoke from the air is worse than taking it in through your mouth as it would cause blockages in the nose. Smoking can always cause headaches and colds and it can also give you very bad cough, also known as smoker cough. The thing that makes smoking so addictive is the nicotine that is inside them. They can be replaced with nicotine patches when and if decided to stop. Smoking also can affect your social life as it can cause arguments and it can also means sometimes it would mean you would be left alone outside smoking away while all your friends are inside as they dont smoke. Also the lose of money from smoking is becoming more and more as they are increasing the prices of the cigarettes as the government are tying to prevent people to smoke, and so by you wasting your money on small cancer sticks is pointless. Smoking can also leads to drugs, because it first starts with smoking cigarettes and then it would go further and start smoking drugs. This can completely change the individuals life around. Smoking also affects the eyesight of the individual from the conclusions that they would have to start wearing glasses. Smoking can also be the main causes of strokes, someone collapsing and some to become paralysis. Asthma is the biggest problem when it comes to smoking because smoking damages the lungs and a person who has asthma would already have a bad set of lungs. And so when someone is smoking around them, it could make it even worse and allow them to have a fatal attack. All of this start of somewhere and it is usually when the individual is a teenager because they would want to just try it. And then they would not be able to control themselves and continue smoking for the rest of their lives. With some people smoking doesnt just happen just like that, they would be either forced through peer pressure or from the attitude just trying it out. Stopping smoking is not easy because it takes a lot of will power and determination because it can be extremely difficult, but the government provides a lot of help because they want the nation to become healthier. That is also another reason for the cigarettes being brought up in prices because they want to try to get people of them. There are products out there that can be brought to help you give up smoking like nicotine patches as well as little sticks that you can inhale which would make believe you that your smoking as it gives you the same feeling but you would not be inhaling any smoke which is safer for you and the people around. With some individuals, they try to stop completely all a sudden but it is them type of people that would either most likely go back and start smoking again, or not touch another one for the rest of your life, but for people who find it hard to stop smoking, there is help provided by the NHS and also on the internet as they would be happy to give advice.

Human African Trypanosomiasis Treatment

Human African Trypanosomiasis Treatment THE synthesis of novel hydrazone compounds to determine the potential anti-parasitic properties and efficacy in the treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis. ABSTRACT Human African Trypanosomiasis is caused by two sub-species of trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodeisense. The protozoan parasite has complex mechanisms to evade immune destruction and hence survives in the host, leading to eventual death without treatment. Treatment such as Suramin and Melarsoprol are limited and have high toxicity, often leading to further complications. Alternative therapies are drastically needed to combat trypanosomal infection, with novel hydrazone compounds currently in development promoting trypanocidal activity. The aims and objectives of this research project include the synthesis of novel hydrazone compounds, with aims of high efficacy and low toxicity, namely against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. This was achieved through a series of reactions, with proton NMR spectra used to confirm the structures of novel hydrazone compounds, and biological screening analysis used to assess the trypanocidal activity in vitro. IC50 valu es were obtained for all hydrazones synthesized, the best results coming from HD1, 9.29 ÂÂ µM, and HD6, 16.18 ÂÂ µM. Overall, the presence of chlorine in the compound typically lowered trypanocidal activity when compared to HD1, which lacked chlorine atoms. Despite other compounds in literature having much lower IC50 values, the results remain promising, demonstrating trypanocidal activity against T. brucei brucei, the infective form of trypanosome that affects animals. Trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei suggests potential activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, signifying the IC50 values obtained from novel hydrazones. Furthermore, the biological properties of hydrazone structures demonstrate the potential to develop additional analogues and derivatives, which could contribute to combatting Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection. Likewise, alternative therapies that can cross the blood-brain-barrier are another interest regarding research i n the field. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense proceeds rapidly once an individual has been exposed to the parasite, with severe side effects and high mortality rates. This reinforces the need for better and more effective treatment and management of the disease. Key words: Trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, hydrazone, Suramin, Melarsoprol, proton NMR, IC50 values 1.1. Background of Human African Trypanosomiasis Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), or African sleeping sickness, is a disease affecting a large proportion of Africa, with a suspected 60 million people at risk (Kennedy, 2013).It is caused by two subspecies of trypanosome, a unicellular and flagellated protozoan parasite, with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r) causing East- African sleeping sickness, and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T.b.g) causing West-African sleeping sickness. West African sleeping sickness is much more prevalent in terms of the whole continent, with 6228 cases reported in 2013. Incidence has decreased massively since 2000, with 25,865 reported cases, although this figure is suspected to be higher due to unreported disease incidence. It is the causative sub-species in 98% of cases. The other 2% of cases are classified as East-African sleeping sickness, with 86 cases reported in 2013, approximately 88% lower than in 2000 (709 cases reported) (Franco et al., 2014). Despite the low incidence of T.b.r infectio n, symptoms are severe and death occurs in almost all patients without treatment. Treatment for suchinfections are limited and have high toxicity, signifying the need for development. Transmission of the protozoan parasite is via the vector, the tsetse fly. Infections with T.b.r proceed rapidly, with entry of infectious metacyclic trypomastigotes into the human bloodstream, lymphatic system and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following the initial bite, where proliferation occurs. The tsetse fly ingests a blood meal from an infected animal, with cattle and ungulates acting as reservoirs (Palmer Wells, 2012), and hence ingests trypomastigotes. Various cell divisions and binary fission occur in the mid-gut of the fly to form procyclic trypomastigotes, and conformational changes occur to allow the trypomastigotes to bind to the salivary epithelia. Once attached, the parasite can once again replicate via asymmetric division (Pepin, 2014) to form metacyclic trypanosomes. It is in this way that a person becomes infected with T.b.r (Langousis Hill, 2014). 1.2. Immunology The causative parasite manifests in hosts due to the evasion of the immune system through antigenic variation, delaying the immune response and therefore allowing the parasite to complete its complex lifecycle (Stijlemans et al., 2016). The parasite expresses variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) on its cell membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor to serve as a protective barrier. While the immune response induces antibody development against the VSG being expressed, the parasite can switch VSG due to the large amount of VSG genes the genome possesses. This causes new antibodies to form against the newly expressed VSG, and the parasite continues to change VSGs to avoid destruction. Furthermore, the parasites alter their energy metabolism and internal structure, presenting further issues for the immune system (Stijlemans et al., 2016). T.b.r. is resistant to human trypanosome lytic factors (TLFs) containing apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1), and this is due to the existence of the seru m resistance protein (SRP) coded for by the SRA gene. This binds to TLF-1 and therefore prevents ApoL1-mediated lysis of the infected parasitic cells (Kennedy, 2013; Bart et al., 2015). Kato et al. noted the upregulation of certain cytokines following T.b.r infection, namely IFN-ÃŽÂ ³, IL-10, IL-6 and TGF-ÃŽÂ ² (Kato et al. 2015). Furthermore, these cytokines may play a key role in the inflammatory immune response. IL-6 and IL-10 were upregulated upon CSF examination of late stage patients, and those with CSF trypanosomes had higher levels of WBCs, positively correlating with IL-6 CSF levels. Despite this, no significant changes in levels of cytokines at different stages in HAT were noted. Both subspecies of trypanosome cause non-specific inflammatory responses, resulting in non-specific symptoms. This demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosis and staging of T.b.r infection, and therefore poses a hindrance in regards to timely treatment (Lamour et al. 2015). 1.3. Symptoms Symptoms, typically manifesting 1-3 weeks after bite, include myalgia, hyperplasia of the lymph nodes and spleen, and weight loss in the haemolymphatic stage, and there is clear central nervous system (CNS) involvement in later stages (Pepin, 2014; Kennedy, 2013). It is in this meningoencephalitic stage where patients often exhibit behavioural and motor disturbances including tremors, speech complications, anxiety, confusion, personality changes and others. Further complications may manifest, including ocular difficulties, acute renal failure, multi-organ failure and chronic lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Death is highly likely to occur in those who do not receive treatment. Trypanosoma brucei produces an aromatic compound called tryptophol, and this induces sleep in humans. Other complications with sleep include irregular patterns of sleep or interrupted sleep, insomnia during the night and sleepiness during the daytime. 1.4. Current problem Current pharmaceutical treatment including intravenous Suramin or Melarsoprol is ineffective and potentially toxic, with patients suffering with neurological dysfunction and post- treatment reactive encephalopathy. Co-administration with eflornithine and nifurtimox has been used to treat T.b.r infection also, but remains somewhat ineffective. Suramin is provided intravenously as the first line treatment for the haemolymphatic stage of T.b.r infection, however this treatment can lead to side effects such as renal failure, peripheral neuropathy and anaphylactic shock, amongst others. It acts by binding to enzymes in the glycosome and disrupts glycolysis within the trypanosome (Babokhov et al., 2013). Should the parasite cross the blood-brain barrier in the later stages of the disease, the treatment options are toxic and limited to the arsenic compound, Melarsoprol, which acts by disrupting trypanosomal redox mechanisms. Treatment with this can lead to further complications such as post-treatment reactive encephalopathy seen in 10% of patients (Palmer Wells, 2012), subsequently causing comas, seizures and cerebral oedema for example. Co-administration of eflornithine with nifurtimox, a hydrazone of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde, has been shown to demonstrate trypanocidal activity, and is routinely used to treat T.b.g. It has shown trypanocidal activity against T.b.b in mice, however has been relatively ineffective against T.b.r. Furthermore, although eflourthrine abides Lipinskis rule of five in theory, in practice it is a highly hydrophobic compound, and is therefore unlikely to cross inner membranes once administered (Gilbert, 2014). It is therefore administered intravenously. Due to there being no self-cure for T.b.r, treatment is required for a recovery to be made. Furthermore, many of the drugs developed are only applicable to bloodstream trypomastigotes, rather than those that have crossed the blood-brain barrier (Palmer Wells, 2012). Factors such as this demonstrate the problematic nature of the disease, as well as the need for alternative therapies to combat the infection. 1.5. Current research Currently, novel treatments are in development with the hope that toxicity is reduced and efficacy is increased against trypanosomal parasites, namely T.b.r and T.b.b. To determine whether a proposed therapeutic compound is likely to be membrane permeable and therefore orally bioavailable, the Lipinskis rule of 5 is applied. To be within the limits of the rule means that the compound is orally bioavailable and easily absorbed by the body (Leeson, P. 2012). The rules state that the molecular weight of the compound must be less than 500 Daltons, the lipophilicity value is less than 5, represented as a LogP value, the number of hydrogen bond acceptors must be less than 10, and the number of hydrogen donators must be less than 5. Hydrogen bond acceptors include highly electronegative atoms not bound to a hydrogen atom and with free electrons on its outer shell, including oxygen and nitrogen. In newer literature, fluorine may be considered and counted as a hydrogen acceptor. This contrasts with a hydrogen bond donor, any atom that donates a hydrogen atom that it is bound to break or form a bond. All novel compounds are assessed under these rules to dete rmine properties involved in pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion). Oral administration is non-invasive, more bioavailable and simpler for patient use, all of which is desirable for a new treatment for T.b.r infection. Furthermore, a compound designed may still be orally bioavailable if a single rule is not adhered to. Benzoxaborole compounds have recently been suggested as a new, novel treatment for Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.r and T.b.g) in vitro, namely SCYX-7158 oxaborole(Jacobs et al., 2011). The orally-active treatment is suggested to have high efficacy for both acute and chronic stages of the disease due to the treatment being permeable to the CNS, and properties such as distribution, metabolism, elimination, absorption and toxicology are apparent in vitro. A viability assay combined different whole cell T. brucei spp.and the novel compound to gain positive results of anti-parasitic activity. This treatment demonstrated concentration-dependency, and most trypanocidal activity came from the first 8 hours of a 24-hour exposure. Furthermore, the irreversibility of trypanocidal activity was noted during a short exposure. In vivo, SCYX-7158 was examined against an infection with T.b.b to monitor passage across the blood-brain barrier, with mice models providing an 80% cure rate over a 7 day-treatmen t. Benzoxaboroles, like hydrazones, have demonstrated anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti- bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic properties with a low intrinsic toxicity similar to table salt when decomposed (Liu et al., 2014). This is due to the metabolites of benzoxaboroles being found to be boric acid and oxidative deboronation products, both with very low toxicity. Per Lipinskis law, it is an orally bioavailable drug with very low IC50 values ranging from 0.19 to 1.008 ÂÂ µM, demonstrating high trypanocidal activity in vitro. An IC50 value is value is the inhibitory concentration value at which 50% inhibition of target cells has occurred. It is important when comparing the difference in the potency of compounds. A higher value represents less efficacy, with smaller values representing good trypanocidal activity in this case. It is a pharmacokinetic parameter, measuring the relationship between drug target and drug. Other research at the forefront include the development of hydrazone compounds of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and adamantine alkanohydrazine (Foscolos et al., 2016). Adamantine and derivatives have been previously shown to have trypanocidal activity, increasing for the more hydrophobic, phenyl and cyclohexyl substituents. These compounds and derivatives demonstrated good trypanocidal activity, approximately 20 times greater than nifurtimox. The lowest IC50 value obtained was 0.386 ÂÂ µM. Following the same study, it was found that in the absence of the nitro group, no trypanocidal activity was demonstrated, highlighting the trypanosomal nitro reductase mechanism these novel compounds work by. In terms of the structure-activity relationship, it was seen that the selectivity of compounds against T. brucei species increased when the distance between the carbonyl group and the adamantine skeleton was increased, with derivatives containing 3-cyclopentyl and 3-phenyl being more biologically active than other compounds. In conjunction, the lipophilicity and conformational structure contributed to the efficacy of these novel compounds, with increased lipophilicity and conformational flexibility promoting trypanocidal activity. 1.6. Aims of research Better pharmaceutical treatments with high efficacy and less lethal side-effects are drastically needed for T.b.r infection. Current research demonstrates the potential use of hydrazone compounds and derivatives in combatting parasitic infections, amongst others. Guidance from project supervisor Dr A Bhambra was given throughout the project regarding the structures of compounds. Hydrazones are defined as having the structure R1R2C = NNH2, the N=H bond is conjugated with a lone pair of electrons on the functional nitrogen atom (Verma et al. 2014). Research suggests hydrazone compounds also demonstrate anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV properties, signifying biological variety and the potential to treat other diseases (Verma et al., 2014). It is because of these properties that new hydrazone compounds are in development, with the aim of synthesising novel compounds which demonstrate similar properties when applied against Trypanosoma brucei infection, and hence a potential the rapeutic for T.b.r. 2.1. Chemistry/ experimental synthesis The synthesis of four novel hydrazone compounds of reactants A-D and Pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFH) (Figure 3) was performed. All solvents and reactants were commercially available. Reflux condensation reactions with relevant reactant (3 mmol) and PFH (3 mmol) were performed, with continuous heating (oil bath) and stirring of compounds at 100-150 ÂÂ °C approximately. Compounds were separated with ethyl acetate (60 ml) and distilled water (50 ml). Excess magnesium sulphate was added to remove any excess water and products were vacuum filtered. Recrystallization reactions with boiling ethanol (10 ml approximately) not in excess were performed, and compounds were vacuumed down to give final compounds. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis was performed for all compounds throughout the stages of experiment to monitor the constituents of the final product. Prior to NMR analysis, compounds were dissolved in chloroform (800 ÂÂ µL) with exception of HD6 (with reactant D), dis solved in DMSO (400 ÂÂ µL). 2.2. Biological Screening Analysis Further viability tests were carried out to assess the trypanocidal activity of each compound. Compounds were sent to the London School of Tropical Medicine for biological screening analysis against T.b.b. Stock drug solutions were prepared in DMSO at 20 mg/ml and further diluted appropriately. All assays were performed with use of 96-well microtiter plates, each well containing 100 ÂÂ µL of parasite culture, and serial dilutions of the compound in triplicate. Wells were incubated at 37ÂÂ °C for 72 hrs in 5% CO2. Control wells contained no compound, and blanks consisted of medium only. Following this, the MIC was determined and assurance of growth in control wells. 20 ÂÂ µL of Alamar Blue was added to wells, and plates were incubated for 2-4 hrs more. Plates were read on Gemini Plate Reader with an excitation wavelength of 530 nm and emission wavelength of 580 nm. Following this, IC50 values were obtained. Four novel hydrazone compounds were synthesised, shown in table 1. The electrophilic carbonyl group of appropriate reactants A-D reacted with the nucleophilic nitrogen (hydrazine portion) of PFH by nucleophilic addition. IC50 values gained demonstrated potential, especially HD1 and HD6. Proton NMR analytical results from spectra obtained are demonstrated below, showing the amount of hydrogens (or protons) in each compound as well as their corresponding intensities. Throughout synthesis, TLC was performed for each compound to visualize the two reactants, the formed product and any other substance that may be present. Rf values and appropriate TLC analysis results are illustrated in alongside compounds in table 1. 3.1. HD1 Beige crystals (50% yield); ÃŽÂ ´H (CDCl3) 7.28 (1H, s), 7.32-7.42 (3H, m), 7.64 (2H, dd), 7.82 (1H, s). 3.2. HD4 Pink crystals (50% yield) ÃŽÂ ´H (CDCl3) 7.30 (2H, s), 7.35 (1H, s), 7.45-7.50 (1H, m), 7.62 (1H, s), 7.73 (1H, s). 3.3. HD5 Beige crystals (H (CDCl3) 7.32-7.38 (3H, s), 7.54-7.60 (2H, d), 7.78 (1H, m). 3.4. HD6 Red crystals (H (CDCl3) 7.37 (1H, s), 7.45 (2H, s), 7.70 (2H, s). 3.5. Biological screening analysis Results obtained from the London School of Tropical Medicine included IC50 values for all hydrazones synthesised. These are listed alongside appropriate compounds in table 1. HD1 had an IC50 value of 9.29 ÂÂ µM; HD4 34.37 ÂÂ µM; HD5 34.09 ÂÂ µM and HD6 16.18 ÂÂ µM. Formation of all compounds HD1, HD4, HD5 and HD6 (table 1) followed the general mechanism illustrated in appendix 1. R1 should be substituted with relevant reactant (A-D) benzene rings. Electrophilic reactants accept free pairs of electrons from the nucleophilic nitrogen atom of PFH by nucleophilic addition. The formation of a biologically active centre was documented (Verma, 2014). All compounds synthesised contain phenyl groups, which has been suggested in literature to promote trypanocidal activity (Foscolos et al., 2016). Hydrazones synthesised are also non-polar and hydrophobic compounds, meaning that they carry no net charge and are not soluble in water. Furthermore, an increase in hydrophobicity also promotes trypanocidal activity, however has been suggested to make the compound less bioavailable (Gilbert et al., 2014). Proton NMR spectra demonstrate relative intensities in parts per million (ppm) of protons or hydrogens in the compound. Despite only hydrogens being of interest, it is important to consider the other electronegative groups that exist within the compound such as phenyl groups or -OH groups, which produce different peaks. The solvent peak demonstrates as a sharp, well distinguished peak to exclude it from the compound results. Singlet, doublet and Name Reactant Structure IC50 value (ÂÂ µM) TLC (illustrated- not to scale) Rf value (cm) HD1 Benzaldehyde (reactant A) 9.29 0.73 HD4 3-chlorobenzaldehyde (reactant B) 34.37 0.48 HD5 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (reactant C) 34.09 0.43 HD6 3,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde (reactant D) 16.42 0.57 multiplet peaks were all demonstrated on the spectra. NMR analysis reflects the structures synthesised, confirming the number and positioning of hydrogens. The spectra observed demonstrated some sharp peaks and others more broad. Furthermore, some peaks were somewhat distorted due to the presence of chlorine on the aromatic benzene ring. Limitations of the experimental synthesis included low yields obtained from synthesised hydrazones. This could have been possibly due to the recrystallization step or some of the reactants not converting into product. Factors such as this could have been improved to gain better results. In addition, yields were estimated due to not weighing compounds beforehand, therefore weighing the compounds when they were initially synthesised would improve the data. 4.1. HD1 From the NMR spectra, HD1 contained 7 hydrogen atoms, one at 7.28 ppm as a singlet peak, three at 7.32 7.42 ppm as a mutliplet peak, two at 7.64 ppm as a doublet peak and one hydrogen at 7.82 ppm as a singlet peak. All novel compounds synthesised differ in terms of the aromatic benzene ring on the relevant reactants, therefore the positioning and amount of chlorine attached to this aromatic ring demonstrates the difference in IC50 values. This coincides with the biological activity against T.b.b. HD1 is formed of benzaldehyde and PFH, and therefore does not possess any chlorine atoms. The IC50 values were the lowest for HD1 at 9.29ÂÂ µM, which suggests that the presence of chlorine in the compound may decrease trypanocidal activity. 4.2. HD4 HD4 contained six hydrogen atoms, two at 7.30 ppm as a singlet peak, one hydrogen at 7.35 ppm as a singlet peak, one hydrogen at 7.45-7.50 ppm as a multiplet peak and a one hydrogen as a singlet peak at 7.73 ppm. HD4 contained a chlorine group on the 3rd carbon of the reactant benzene ring, with displacement of chlorine by (bio)nucleophiles, facilitated by the electrophilic carbon centre determining biological properties observed. However, it has been suggested that the presence of a chlorine atom at a non-reactive aromatic double bond diminishes reactivity (Naumann, 2003). The IC50 value for HD4 was 34.37 ÂÂ µM, the highest value from all the compounds synthesised. This supports the notion that chlorine atoms present in the compound reduces trypanocidal activity rather than improving it. 4.3. HD5 HD5 also contained six hydrogens, with three hydrogens at 7.32 7.38 ppm in a singlet peak, 2 hydrogens at 7.54 7.60 ppm in a doublet peak, and one hydrogen at 7.78 ppm in a multiplet peak. HD5 also contained a chlorine atom but on the forth carbon of the benzene ring, as opposed to the third. Altering the position of the chlorine atom did allow for an improved IC50 value to be obtained, which was 34.09 ÂÂ µM. This however remains much less effective than HD1. 4.4. HD6 HD6 contained five hydrogen atoms, one at 7.37 ppm as a singlet peak, one at 7.35 ppm as a singlet peak, two at 7.45 ppm in a singlet peak, and 2 hydrogens at 7.70 ppm in a singlet peak. Despite the presence of chlorine in both HD4 and HD5 causing less effective activity against T.b.b, HD6 contained two chlorine atoms attached to the benzene ring, and the IC50 value obtained was nearly half that of HD4 and HD5 at 16.18 ÂÂ µM. This suggests that the presence of one chlorine atom existing at any carbon on the benzene ring does not promote trypanocidal activity, however the presence of 2 attached chlorine atoms did aid activity. 4.5. Oral bioavailability Per Lipinskis rule of 5, all novel compounds fall within the laws except from HD1, which contains 6 hydrogen bond donors. HD1 therefore would be more bioavailable if administered intravenously, however may still be orally bioavailable as only one rule has been violated, with the rest all being adhered to. Despite this, the other novel compounds alone demonstrate progression in seeking an orally bioavailable treatment for HAT, linked with reducing toxicity amongst being easier and more accessible for those who require it. Furthermore, the use of PFH incorporates many fluorine atoms, which increases lipophilicity (Citation), increasing activity in vivo, as well as increasing fat solubility and therefore allowing the compounds to easily pass through membranes in the body. Retaining fluorine is a desirable property due to the improvement of metabolic stability as a result of the high strength C-F bond. It is a relatively small molecule, with a high electronegativity value. All properties such as this contribute to biological responses within the body. 4.6. Comparison to literature IC50 values HD1 and HD6 demonstrated the most promising results of 9.29 and 16.18 ÂÂ µM. For comparison intentions, alternative novel therapies at the forefront of science such as adamantine alkanohydrazine hydrazones and benzoxaborole SCYX-7158 have IC50 values of 0.386ÂÂ µM and 0.19 to 1.008ÂÂ µM respectively (Foscolos et al., 2016; Jacobs et al., 2011). Although the results from the synthesised compounds are promising and suggest trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei, both SCYX-7158 and the adamantine alkanohydrazine hydrazones have much lower IC50 values, suggesting that the structures of novel compounds could be improved and altered to gain better trypanocidal activity. Furthermore, current treatment Melarsoprol and Suramin have IC50 values of 0.046 and 0.004-0.009 ÂÂ µM, much lower than the compounds synthesised (Torreele et al., 2010). However, as stated above, these treatments offer high toxicity and high mortality rates following administration, and the fa ct that the novel compounds synthesised (HD1 especially) have low IC50 values remains promising. Furthermore, both Suramin and Melarsoprol are administered intravenously, posing more problems in terms of accessibility as developing countries where the disease is endemic possibly do not possess the facilities to administer treatment. This is unlike the synthesised hydrazone compounds, which all theoretically can be administered orally, therefore moving towards better treatment and management of T.b.r infection. HD4 and HD5 demonstrate lower trypanocidal activity than HD1 and HD6, therefore further progression on HD1 especially would allow for potentially more effective trypanocidal compounds, represented by lower IC50 values upon testing. Furthermore, new compounds in other literature with the highest trypanocidal activity, namely 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and adamantine alkanohydrazine hydrazones and benzoxaboroles, provide a platform for future work and development of structural analogues of hydrazones to promote trypanocidal activity. To confirm that the novel compounds synthesised are in fact effective against T.b.r, further testing is required in a controlled level 3 laboratory where the p