Friday, May 31, 2019
Magical Realism in Camus Black Orpheus and Zakes Mdas Ways of DyingMyth and cosmos have gone hand in hand in every culture since the beginnings of time because assortmenting the two is an effective method of teaching determine and morals the modern term for this is magical realism. Because all cultures have mythical representations of life and death and cognize, the magical realism used in both marcel Camus Black Orpheus and Zakes Mdas Ways of Dying is effective because, while it is specifically aimed towards either the Brazilian and S knocked out(p)h African cultures, it can be interpreted by any culture at all because of the universal themes it emphasizes. Mixing magical realism with realistic forms of expression allows a legend to be rooted in and yet above humanity. This enables the reader to aspire to the precedents set by the characters while at the same time not feeling that they be entirely out of reach. Dealing with cultural issues through magical realism adds a dreaml ike quality to the violence, corruption, and poverty, making it more palatable than bald honesty but at the same time adding a touch of familiarity through the common subjects of love, life, and death the three topics broached by Black Orpheus and Ways of Dying. These cultural themes are approached differently in each but both Camus and Mda address the cultural issues of Brazil and South Africa through the use of magical realism. Black Orpheus is multi cultural before the story even begins, as it is directed by a Frenchman and set in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil this adds a certain depth to the film that is accentuated greatly by the mix of culture, myth, and reality that is found within the movie itself. By mixing Greek myth, Brazilian custom, and many religions... ... again. Black Orpheus blends Greek and Brazilian culture with a rush of French direction in order to bring the cultural and economic problems of the Rio de Janeiro shanty towns to the global population. Marcel Camu s allows people of all cultures to understand the anguish and love that Orpheus and Eurydice endure because these themes are completely universal and span the globe. Similarly, Zakes Mdas characters Noria and Toloki shine a ray of hope through the miasma of violence that surrounds the South African culture. Mda mixes the man with the myth and uses the same universalness of life and death to transform his characters into cultural icons rather than simple humans. Every cultures ways of dying are their ways of living, and the global themes of love and death and life will continue to invoke feelings of reverence for life, culture, and identity. (Mda, 98)
Thursday, May 30, 2019
IntroductionPopular medical specialty is ordinary afresh, and its everywhere. Whether its the idols, the stars, the competitors or the academy, the burst music industry has non ever flaunted itself to such a large extent. But how can we mark burst music? Where is its place? Many would contend that it pertains sorely littered oer the levels of teenagers bedrooms worldwide. Others would state it is most at home recorded on the bank balance of a foremost multinational organisation. An allotment of persons would range that burst music has no home, and is just a fad commended by the culturally inept, those who are only adept of enjoying a pre-formatted, formulaic merchandise of the finishing industry. Or is it infects a varied and creative occurrence, permitting a communally and culturally wealthy expression? Maybe burst music will non ever be pigeon holed as such, but I wish to recognise the contentions surrounding customary music and work out its location privileged popular fa rming and inside up to date society (Shanahan 2001).DiscussionThe subject of burst music appears to have been thinly affected on by many writers when conversing about popular culture, but no one have theorised on the theme as much as Theodora Adorn. Adornos set about, which is compelled very flop by its bolshy leanings, is founded mostly on facts of 1930s Germany, and subsequently, the United States when The Frankfurt School re-located to New York in 1933.Adorno converses about popular music as a merchandise of the culture industry, a formulaic and obstinate master-plan to which all burst music adheres. He proposed that burst music hears for the listener and is pre-digested and he some collaborates with Marcuses desire of The One-Dimensi... ...ustry. ledger of Cultural political economy 6 2, pp. 1125.Bloom, Allan David, 2004. The Closing of the American Mind. , Simon and Shuster,, New York.Clyne, Manfred, 2006. melody, Mind, and Brain. , Plenum Press,, New York.Coase, Rona ld, 2006. Payola in radio and television broadcasting. ledger of Law and Economics 22 2, pp. 269328. Levy, David and Feigenbaum, Susan, 2006. Death, debt, and democracy. In Buchanan, J.M. et al.. Deficit, Blackwell,, Oxford, pp. 236262.Peterson, R.A. and Berger, D.G., 2004. Cycles, in symbol production The case of popular music. American Sociological Review 40, pp. 158173. Shanahan, J.L., 2001. The consumption of music integration aesthetics and economics. Journal of Cultural Economics 2 2, pp. 1326Whitburn, Joel, 2003. Pop memories, 18901954, The History of American Popular Music. , Record Research Inc., Menomonee Falls. Popular Music Essay -- EntertainmentIntroductionPopular music is popular afresh, and its everywhere. Whether its the idols, the stars, the competitors or the academy, the burst music industry has not ever flaunted itself to such a large extent. But how can we mark burst music? Where is its place? Many would contend that it pertains sorely littered over the levels of teenagers bedrooms worldwide. Others would state it is most at home recorded on the bank balance of a foremost multinational organisation. An allotment of persons would assert that burst music has no home, and is just a fad commended by the culturally inept, those who are only adept of enjoying a pre-formatted, formulaic merchandise of the culture industry. Or is it infects a varied and creative occurrence, permitting a communally and culturally wealthy expression? Maybe burst music will not ever be pigeon holed as such, but I wish to recognise the contentions surrounding popular music and work out its location inside popular culture and inside up to date society (Shanahan 2001).DiscussionThe subject of burst music appears to have been thinly affected on by numerous writers when conversing about popular culture, but no one have theorised on the theme as much as Theodora Adorn. Adornos set about, which is compelled very powerful by its Marxist leanings, is founded mostly on facts of 1930s Germany, and subsequently, the United States when The Frankfurt School re-located to New York in 1933.Adorno converses about popular music as a merchandise of the culture industry, a formulaic and obstinate master-plan to which all burst music adheres. He proposed that burst music hears for the listener and is pre-digested and he nearly collaborates with Marcuses idea of The One-Dimensi... ...ustry. Journal of Cultural Economics 6 2, pp. 1125.Bloom, Allan David, 2004. The Closing of the American Mind. , Simon and Shuster,, New York.Clyne, Manfred, 2006. Music, Mind, and Brain. , Plenum Press,, New York.Coase, Ronald, 2006. Payola in radio and television broadcasting. Journal of Law and Economics 22 2, pp. 269328. Levy, David and Feigenbaum, Susan, 2006. Death, debt, and democracy. In Buchanan, J.M. et al.. Deficit, Blackwell,, Oxford, pp. 236262.Peterson, R.A. and Berger, D.G., 2004. Cycles, in symbol production The case of popular music. American Sociolo gical Review 40, pp. 158173. Shanahan, J.L., 2001. The consumption of music Integrating aesthetics and economics. Journal of Cultural Economics 2 2, pp. 1326Whitburn, Joel, 2003. Pop memories, 18901954, The History of American Popular Music. , Record Research Inc., Menomonee Falls.
Please Stop Laughing at Me, an autobiography by Jodee Blanco, is one womans inspirational story about the fight against bullying. This real-life count is proof of the disturbing results of what happens at school. Jodee Blanco holds nothing back when she describes the horrifying events that occurred to her at several different schools. In the beginning of the book, as the reader, we find ourselves inside Jodees head as she is debating whether she should actually walk in and attend her postgraduate school reunion or not. Jodee dazzles us with all she has accomplished in life, and convinces us that she has nothing to fear. But, in all actuality, she is still nervous when it comes to facing her former classmates. This beginning scene plays a major role in the books central plot, and allows us to foreshadow some of the upcoming events. Next, we are placed in Jodees stable home as she is getting ready for her first day of high school. We see how truly desperate Jodee really is as she de scribes how her new shoes should make her popular. Throughout the story we see that Jodee is not poor, stupid, cubby, or socially awkward. She is plainly prude, and is hated by the classmates of every school she attended in the attempt to become accepted. This explains how loving parents can be so wrong, schools cannot prevent disaster, and children in universal can be just plain mean. Jodee goes back and forth through her entire school life explaining all her horrible sires. We follow her through therapy, and fascinate as she is misunderstood by all adults. She explicitly depicts her suffering as she relives the torture. Shedding a shell, she lets us have full access of the shunning, teasing, and shocking strong-arm abuse inflicted upon her by her classmates. This sets the atmosphere and attitude of the book, so we may accurately see what happens when no one is watching. This book is timeless, bullying is ongoing. The setting of the 1970s and 80s makes the experience for the reader really see how timeless this book is.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Summary and Analysis of The Monks Tale (The Canterbury Tales)Prologue to the Monks TaleWhen the tale of Melibee ended, the Host said that hed give up a barrel of ale to subscribe his wife hear the tale of Prudence and her patience, for she is an ill-tempered woman. The Host asks the narrator his name, and attempts to guess his profession perhaps a sexton or other much(prenominal) officer, or a wily governor. The Monk will tell the following(a) tale, a series of tragedies. AnalysisChaucer uses the prologue to the Monks Tale as one more chance for satiric, self-referential comedy. Within the story he is a necessarily opaque character. Significantly, the Host assumes that Chaucer is, at best, a mid-ranking government official and non an artist capable of constructing a landmark piece of literature such as the Canterbury Tales. The Monks TaleThe Monks Tale is not a strict narrative tale as are to the highest degree of the other Canterbury Tales. Instead, it chronicles various hist orical characters who experience a fall from grace. The first of these is Lucifer, the fair angel who fell from heaven to hell. Next is Adam, the one man who was not born of original sin, but preoccupied Paradise for all humanity. Samson fell from grace when he admitted his secret to his wife, who betrayed it to his enemies and then took another lover. Samson disregard one thousand men with an asss jawbone, then prayed for God to quench his thirst. From the jawbones tooth sprung a well. He would have conquered the world if he had not told Delilah that his strength came from his refusal to glow his hair. Without this strength his enemies cut out Samsons eyes and imprisoned him. In the temple where Samson was kept he knocked down two of the pillars, killing himself and everyone else in the temple. The next tale is of Hercules, whose strength was unparalleled. He was finally defeated when Deianera sent Hercules a poisoned shirt made by Nessus. The Monk then tells the tale of Nebucha dnezzar, the king of Babylon who had twice defeated Israel. The proud king constructed a large gold statue to which all must pray, or else be browse into a pit of flames. Yet when Daniel disobeyed the king, Nebuchadnezzar lost all dignity, acting like a great beast until God relieved him of his insanity. The next, Balthasar, the son of Nebuchadnezzar, also worshipped false idols, but fortune cast him down.
Abraham Lincoln was a man who was best known for bold standing against the difficult problems of his day. Issues such as slavery, negro social and political rights, and livery the Union in a nation based on the Declaration of Independence. Lincoln had many strength as well as flaws. He considered himself a common man and was not interested in his ancestry. Lincoln was a self educated man, who had never had a full year of schooling in his life. But, the 16th President of the United States became a casualty of conflict. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809. He was born to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. In 1816, the Lincolns travel from Kentucky to across the Ohio River to Indiana. His father left Kentucky partly on account of slavery but chiefly on account of the difficulty in land titles in Ky. Early on in life Lincoln had religious reasons for disliking slavery. His family was Separate Baptists who adhered to a strict code of morality that condemned profanity, int oxication, gossip, horse racing, dancing, and slavery. October 5, a little oer a year after living in Indiana, Lincolns mother died of a devastating outbreak of what was called milk sickness, along with several other relatives. The hardest historic period of Lincolns life were yet to follow. After a short time it became apparent that Thomas Lincoln could not cope with his family by himself. Thomas went back to Kentucky to judge a wife. He married Sarah Bush fast oneson. They made a businesslike arrangement for her to move to Indiana to take care of his family and for him to pay for her debts. Sarah Lincolns arrival pronounced a turning point in Abraham Lincolns life. Sarah brought her three children of her own into the Lincoln family. The Lincoln children felt that they had joined the world of luxury when Sarah brought knives, forks, spoons, tables and chairs, and comfortable bedding. But nearly of all she brought the love. Although Sarah was illiterate, she felt that it was imp ortant for the children to be educated. Lincoln became adept at writing and reading. And almost from the beginning he a became a leader. These eld of Lincolns childhood were short. He grew up in tough economic times. Out of necessity Abraham was mildewed very hard on the family invoke. He was even hired out to work for other farmers and by law Thomas Linco... ... Shermans army to storm through and end the war. He did this as the surest way to end the killing and salvage the American dream. Lee surrendered his forces at Appomatox Courthouse on April 10, 1865. Four days later Lincoln was shot by an assassins bullet, while attending a play at the Fords Theater. John Wilkes Booth, the assassin, enter the presidents theater box, and at a distance of about two feet shot Lincoln in the back of the head. Booth escaped by saltation fling off on to the stage and escaped through the rear of the theater. Twenty-one men carried Lincoln out of the theater to a boarding house down the stree t. Lincoln never regained consciousness. At 722 p.m., April 15, 1865, President Lincoln was pronounced dead. It was not until April 26 that Booth was tracked down to a farm in Virginia, where he was shot. American innocence died with Booths shot at Fords Theater. Lincoln would not live to see the peace that he had strived 4 long years for. We will always wonder what Lincoln would have done for this country if he had not died. Instead, we will always ponder what was lost that night at the Fords Theater, what ended there and what began.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Nathaniel Hawthornes Dr. Heideggers Experiment Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionist, wrote in his Diary in Exile, The depth and strength of a human feature are defined by its object lesson reserves. People reveal themselves completely only when they are thr testify out of the customary conditions of their life, for only then do they put on to fall back on their reserves. Nathaniel Hawthorne gives us a 19th century example of this phenomenon in Dr. Heideggers Experiment. The theme of this degree is that a persons character, once developed does not change over time, and when faced with conflict and adversity, their true character becomes boldly evident. Hawthorne himself provides the narration, although he does not differentiate his character, nor is his character present during the experiment. The narrator appears to be telling this story based on events relayed to him by other people, and there are times throughout the story when Hawthorne admits that the events are sometimes unbelievable. He leads us to question whether this story actually takes place, or is the story merely a tool, a demonstration of a moral Puritan principle, similar to a parable found in the Bible. The effect is the same a lesson about morality, about living life as theology would want us to, and the consequences we suffer when we fail to do so. Relevant symbols are abounding in this story, from setting to names to objects. The dim room that the five matter to is a symbol of death, the death that they will soon face. Complete with dust, cobwebs and a skeleton, the description of the room is more like that of a mausoleum, instead of the good Dr.s study. The oak bookcases are reminiscent of the wood that will create their coffins. More peculiar is the large black folio. The folio is a scrapbook that represents Dr. Heideggers life. We all have a folio. It is that glimpse of our own lives, that flash we see briefly but completely right before our eyes when faced wi th the unexpected reality of our own death. matinee idol sees this folio also, but in a manner more thoroughly than we would. In this sense Dr. Heidegger symbolizes God. But is Heidegger in fact playing God by giving these poor souls this elixir of life?
Nathaniel Hawthornes Dr. Heideggers Experiment Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionist, wrote in his Diary in Exile, The knowledge and strength of a human nature are defined by its moral reserves. People reveal themselves completely only when they are thrown off of the customary conditions of their life, for only then do they have to fall back on their reserves. Nathaniel Hawthorne gives us a 19th century example of this phenomenon in Dr. Heideggers Experiment. The theme of this story is that a persons character, once developed does not change over time, and when faced with conflict and adversity, their true character becomes boldly evident. Hawthorne himself provides the narration, although he does not identify his character, nor is his character present during the experiment. The narrator appears to be telling this story based on events relayed to him by other people, and thither are times throughout the story when Hawthorne admits that the events are sometimes unbelie vable. He leads us to question whether this story actually takes place, or is the story merely a tool, a demonstration of a moral Puritan principle, similar to a parable found in the Bible. The effect is the same a lesson roughly morality, about living life as God would want us to, and the consequences we suffer when we fail to do so. Relevant symbols are abounding in this story, from setting to names to objects. The dim room that the five occupy is a symbol of death, the death that they will soon face. Complete with dust, cobwebs and a skeleton, the description of the room is more identical that of a mausoleum, instead of the good Dr.s study. The oak bookcases are reminiscent of the wood that will create their coffins. More peculiar is the large black page number. The folio is a scrapbook that represents Dr. Heideggers life. We all have a folio. It is that glimpse of our own lives, that flash we see briefly but completely right before our eyeball when faced with the unexpected reality of our own death. God sees this folio also, but in a manner more thoroughly than we would. In this sense Dr. Heidegger symbolizes God. except is Heidegger in fact playing God by giving these poor souls this elixir of life?
Monday, May 27, 2019
AP Psychology F totally Term Project Introduction I am more interested in the abstract and philosophical aspects rather than the more concrete biological aspects of psychology. The topic that interested me the most so far this year and the topic that I act to research was the topic of morality. I didnt have a specific question I wanted to address but as I make whatsoever articles about populate who were institutionalized for violently expressing sociopathologic personality traits, I came across an article that asked a question of its consume.The article brought up the estimation that traits of psychopathy including ruthlessness, charm, mindfulness, focus, fearlessness, and action can be beneficial to the individual. From this idea, the question I sought to answer was If we all take on typically immoral psychopathic tendencies, are they no longer immoral? Summary The article I read came from Scientific American adapted from the non-fiction book The Wisdom of Psychopaths What Saints, Spies, and Serial Killers pot Teach Us about Success by Kevin Dutton. The main question posed by Dutton is Can the typical traits of a psychopath benefit people at certain points in their lives?The article is more of an interview with some patients at Broadmoor, the best-known high-security psychiatric hospital in England and an observation rather than a study with measurements and variables. However, applying knowledge of Kohlberg, Brofenbrenner, and Gillians theories make the article even more interesting. In the article, Dutton discusses the inmates solutions to problems similar to that of the Heinz dilemma, psychopathy and the principal, and a relation to psychopathic traits to religion and happiness.If what he discusses were put into terms of variables, the independent variable could be expression of psychopathic traits and the dependent variable could be anything the traits effect from happiness to inner or usual morality. Discussion In the article, the ideas of the psychopaths can be looked at and evaluated using both Kohlberg and Brofenbrenners theories on moral development. In the article Dutton asks one of the inmates a supposed question. An hoary woman moves out of her house to live with her daughter and son-in-law.The house is in an up and coming neighborhood and she can get a effectual price if she sold it. The only problem is the tenant who doesnt want to move out. How do you get the tenant to leave? The first thing the psychopath said was Im presuming were not talking violence here indicating that psychopaths do have a sense of the Level II stately morality described by Kohlberg. The psychopath recognizes that violence is typically punished and looked down upon by law and society, putting the psychopath into at least peg 4 of Kohlbergs theory of moral development.Essentially the psychopath solves the problem by saying that someone should pretend to be someone from the health department and communicate the tenant that the house i s not safe to live in and he must leave as soon as he can. He doesnt explain his reasoning but most psychopaths are concerned with one thing only getting the job done. However, the article doesnt go into why or how the psychopath determined this was the best way to remove the tenant.If the psychopath figured the action would lead to reward (getting the tenant out) and that is the only consequence, he would be in Stage 1 of Kohlbergs theory and orientation 1of Bronfenbrenners theory. On the other end of the spectrum, if the psychopath figured that if the house got sold and the old woman and her daughter and son-in-law could live comfortably, that the expulsion of the tenant (whether he became homeless or even finds another place to stay) would be the greatest good for the greatest number, putting him in Stage 5 of Kohlbergs theory.This would be orientation 4 of Bronfenbrenners theory called objectively oriented morality in which the rest goals of the group override that of the indiv idual. As the conversation continues, the discussion turns to worrying about the future affecting actions in the present. The psychopaths discuss the idea that theres no use in getting your mind wrapped in what might happen when everything in the present is perfectly fine and that you shouldnt let your brain get ahead of you. Do in the moment what makes you happy. Dutton describes this as mindfulness.Dutton brings up the fact that embracing the present is something that psychopathy and schools of spiritual enlightenment have in common. When it comes to psychology, Dutton brings up a mindfulness-based cognitive-behavior therapy program for sufferers of anxiety and depression. Surely, mindfulness and living in the present has its benefits but ignoring the future can produce dangerous consequences as well. Since some stages of morality are based on self satisfaction, others the law and religion, and further the good of society, I have answered my question If we all take on typically i mmoral psychopathic tendencies, are hey no longer immoral? The answer I came up with is, it depends. The reason it depends is because, well, it does. Anyone can have psychopathic traits of mindfulness, ruthlessness, action, charming, and fearlessness its just about how we use them. Sure, Dutton suggests these traits can lead to happiness and success, but in the right descend and for the right reasons. What we consider the right reasons and right amount is also based on our own levels of morality. If everyone was charming, fearless, ruthless, and mindful, we would all be doing what we could to get ahead and be happy.If doing what is necessary to be happy and get ahead became a universally moral idea, then sure, there wouldnt be a problem with psychopaths, liars, and cheaters. But in the world in which we live, where we all have our own different ideas of good and bad with exceptions and loopholes included, under the right circumstances, these traits are acceptable and useful, but at the wrong times they can be damaging and violating. Should we all just become psychopaths? I guess it just depends. Citation Dutton, K. (2013, January). Wisdom from Psychopaths? Electronic version. Scientific American.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Professor Jim Gray of Sonoma State University defines ending as a means of survival. passing by this definition of culture the evolution of gruesome modality has definitely been a foundigital audiotapeion in the survival of the comedy in America. This paper go a direction be a discussion of how Afri mess American witticism has evolved and for centuries has changed and continues to change the way we look at comedy. Before take upning this paper, I must air the importance of humor for all races. Truly, the environ manpowert in which most humor takes place has helped American culture and people survive.According to Constance Rourke, humor is important because1. Humor is a element of the natural life process and is comm that taken for granted or non recognized as having solid importance. The fact that humor is a framework for non-real or play activity and not taken as a serious interaction allows messages and formulations to be risked within its framework which would not earl y(a)wise be acceptable or possible.3. Humor allows the exploration of clean ideas in postures of uncertainty or unfamiliarity. Similarly allowed are the negotiation of taboo topics, sensitive issues, and marginal serious content.4. Humor performs a boundary function on both internal and external lines, policing groups in terms of membership and acceptable and competence behavior.5. Humor can function as a coping device to release tension, allay fear, forestall threat, defuse aggression or distance the unpleasant.6. Humor can wager an implicit contradiction, paradox or play in the social structure made explicit. The joke constitutes a reversal within its boundaries of the patterns of control in the real world.7. Canned jokes and situational jokes are not entirely separate.Canned jokes are not sealed from the situation in which they are told as they always affect it and incorporate interaction into their pattern situation jokes always have some impact beyond their context. Langsto n Hughes says, Humor is laughing at what you havent got when you ought to have it. Of course, you laugh by proxy. Youre really laughing at the other guy lacks, not your own. Thats what makes it funny-The fact that you dont know you are laughing at yourself. Humor is when the joke is on you but hits the other fellow first-Because it boomerangs.Humor is what you care in your secret heart were not funny, but it is, and you must laugh. Humor is your unconscious therapy (Hughes, 1966) Laughter for centuries has been the medicine that has helped to ensure the survival of African Americans. Herded unitedly with others with whom they divided only a common condition of servitude and some degree of cultural overlap, enslaved Africans were compelled to create a new language, a new religion, and a precarious new lifestyle. (Joyner, 1984) As Africans were unloaded by boat and placed onto plantations, slave get the hang were completely enthralled by the way they spoke, moved, and danced.Out of slavery emerged a culture that would influence Americas mainstream culture for infinity. Slavery created bondage for Africans and when it looked desire they were going nowhere fast they laughed, sang, and amused one some other with riddles, jokes and animal tales from the homeland. Slave masters could not conceive why slaves in such a miserable state were so joyous, what they did not know was some of the songs, jokes and riddles were more than surface deep and some(prenominal) times about the master.The slaves made the best of the circumstances through humor and by laughing at the way the slave master treated them and their response to this treatment. They were laughing at the slave master and at the same time laughing at themselves. However, it did not take long before slave masters made slave merry-making public. Many times slaves were called upon to entertain master and their guests. Slave merry-making was also encouraged because it also increased the price of the slaves. People took notice to the way slaves spoke and moved, out of slavery evolved Blackface Humor. (Watkins, 1994) Blackface comedy was when a person ( snowy) painted their face with saturnine makeup and acted like a slave (surface-to-air missilebo). Blackface humor gave whites the retrieve to lift African American Humor from its original context, transform it, then spotlight it as their own amusement, amusement (for non-black audiences) it became popular for it is supposed originality. As blackface entertainment became more popular so did the actors. George Washington Dixion introduced Coal Black Rose (Watkins) one song Sambo and Cuffee, (Watkins) was a comic song about a black woman and her lover.Dixion performed this act all over the world some would argue that Dixion was the first white blackface performer to establish a broad reputation. By the 1830s, blackface performers were all over becoming one of the most popular attractions of the American stage. Billy Whitlock, Frank Brow er, Frank Pelham and Dan Emmett were also very popular blackface performers. Dixion created the one man, show but these men created a troupe of blackface performers. They also firmly established the image of blacks as happy-go-lucky plantation darkies, outrageously dresses and ignorant.Although there were other blackface performers before them, these men were the only ones who could give a real show from the makeup to the costume. By the 1840s blackface performances had reached an unprecedented level of national popularity. (Watkins) There were numerous performance troupes, even professional fresh troupes. Each followed a standard they had a three-act presentation. The first act opened up with a walkaround where the entire troupe came out made up in face paint and dressed in suits.They than gathered in a semicircle to alternate comic songs and jokes. Here is a common type of joke many used it is called Mr. Bones Does us black folks go to hebbin? Does we go through dem golden gates ? Mr. Tambo Mr. Bones, you know the golden gates is for white folks. Mr. Bones Well, whos gonna be dere to open demm gates for you white folks? For many of the white people watching the show the most funny and exciting part was the joke telling. In the second act-the olio or variety segment- was the stump speech speaker.This occured when one member performed a comic, black reading material of a topic. Topics would look-alike from, emancipation, womens suffrage, education or another current political or scientific topic. The goal was to show how blacks could not comprehend nor interpret sophisticated ideas. The third and last-place part of the show was a slapstick plantation skit, featuring song and dance with costumed men and women dressed as slaves. After the Civil War, blackface troupes hired on free black men and women to perform with them. White audiences became upset and angry at many troupes.After the war and emancipation during the reconstruction period integral amend ments were passed to assure civil rights and voting rights for former slaves and some blacks were elected members of the House and Senate Whites wanted to be assured that blacks were whitewash inferior and blackface troupes were not showing this by continuing to hire blacks. Therefore, audiences depleted, and many troupes that had incorporated blacks starting lineed to perform on circuits like the Chitlen circuit, which hit most black owned theaters. Blacks who were part of the troupes started to branch clear up and start their own troupes.In doing this, they altered the usual blackface performance routine. First, they altered song lyrics, instead of singing songs that downgraded blacks songsters would play on white fears and mock them. Many blacks took off the face paint and introduced melodious comedies. Black musical comedies made many black performers successful. White already loved black music so the musical comedy fit right into the market. Still many of these comedies wer e on the circuit, and confined to black theaters. It was not until later that musical comedies were featured on Broadway.When musical comedies appeared on Broadway Lyles and Miller a very successful team created a whole new approach to the comedies. (Watkins) They presented at the end of their acts a group of women who danced and sang with the stereotypic attitude many felt black urban women had. This simple addition astounded Broadway and critics raved.Eventually, both black troupe evolved to use this form. Black Musical Comedies took blacks to another level of comedy yet, they were unable to shake the sambo stereotypical image given to them by white blackface performers. Licensed radio was introduced in 1920, because of the low budget and inadequate facilities, news shows and music provided by local groups dominated the airwaves. By 1922, there were over 522 licensed stations and radio sales increased from $1million in 1920 to $400million in 1925. By 1929, one in every three hom es owned radios ten years later there was a radio in almost every home. Radio was a medium where its listeners could hear concerts, comic monologues, sporting events and political speeches as they happened. (MacDonald, 1981)Radio at first initially ignored blacks, as in the blackface performance days they were imitated by whites. In 1925, Freeman F. Gosden and Charles J. Correll a minor duo debuted as musicians on a radio station in Chicago. They compete at this radio station for a while and later moved to a station owned by the Chicago Tribune. There they were approached by circumspection about doing a broadcast edition to the comic strip The Gumps. The two refused the offer but suggested an alternative, a black dialect show. Gosden and Correll made a series based on two black names Sam N total heat, which would later become known as Amos N Andy.Sam N Henry debuted on January 12, 1926 (Dunning, 1925-1976) The characters Sam and Henry still depended on the stereotypical images of blacks created during the blackface (minstrel) performance years. Blacks were superstitious, naive, easily influenced, lazy, ignorant and conniving. On March 19, 1928, three months after the Sam N Henry show had been cancelled, Amos N Andy mysteriously appeared on a rival station in Chicago. Gosden and Correll had come up with the idea presented it to the station and it was accepted.This show was far more successful than Sam and Henry Amos N Andy was recorded and leased to forty other radio stations. In August 1929, Pepsodent became the first major sponsor of a black comedy show. Amos N Andy was the number one show in the country. By 1935, 70 percent of American home (40 million) listeners tuned in each night. Sayings from the show hit the streets Aint dat sumptin, Splain dat to me, and Holy Mackerel became popular. Even with its popularity, the show had a down time. Radio stations modernized their broadcast methods comedians were no longer forced to work without an audience.Th is is when variety shows begin to take the market. In 1943, Gosden and Correl returned to the air with a thoroughly revamped half an hour version of Amos N Andy. The show was performed before a live audience and featured an orchestra and chorus. Amos N Andy be a breakthrough for black comedians on radio and television as well. Although one-person acts were not popular during the variety show period, Moms Mabley set the stage for many comedians that would come after her. Jackie Moms Mabley. Born in North Carolina in 1897, Mabley grew up in Cleveland Ohio, by the time she was sixteen she had became a stage performer.She began as a dancer and singer and dabbled in comedy. During the 1920s, she was performing on the chitlen circuit in Dallas, where another teams saw her act and helped her get better bookings. Like many performers, she appeared in skits with other performers at first. However, Mabley did not like this and she was one of the first comics to turn to monologue humor. She a ppeared on the stage with oversized clodhoppers, tattered gingham dresses and oddball hats she acted like a typical down to earth older black woman.Mabley worked with many performers but she did her best when she was alone. She was famous for her costume and her shuffle, she would sing some comical version of a popular song, tell stories or just stand there and the audience loved it. Mabley foreshadowed the shift to direct social commentary and stand up comic techniques that would dominate humor and comedians to come. Dick Gregory, Flip Wilson, Redd Foxx, Steve Allen, Richard Pryor, Whoopi Goldburg, Eddie Murphy, and many other popular black and white comedians have evolved from the history of comedy.The images that were passed on from slavery still thrive at the root of jokes many comedians of today tell. Black comedians have finally gotten away from the white interpretation of black humor and created original black humor from an African American perspective to the world. Black com edy has come to be the voice of the struggle, pain, and joy African American people have foregone through and are continuing to going through. Humor will continue to be a driving force to bring people of all ethnicities together to laugh at the good and bad times of our country. Without humor, would we really survive?
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Behaviour Assessment in HRM Why Is Behaviour Assessment A Perennially Troubled Aspect of Human Resource Management?
A better understanding of the topic can be achieved by incorporating into the analysis the topic that doings estimate is overly similar to exercise assessment and this means that both concepts deal with the assessment of employee effect in terms of what is expected of them and also on its effect on the over al wizard hawkish advantage of the firm in relation to its position in the industry.On the issue that behaviour assessment as a standard company policy is bad line of works for both the presidential term in general and Human preference guidance (HRM) in particular can be explained based on the followers propositions1. port assessment and other consummation appraisal tools/systems argon not clearly understood both for its true meaning, goals, and purpose. 2. Behaviour assessment and other performance appraisal tools/systems do not deliver on its promises to make better over all in all efficiency and profitability both for the organization and the individual employe e. 3. Behaviour assessment and other performance appraisal tools/systems need to be accurate all the time there is great pressure on management very little margin of geological fault for a system generated by subjective human observations/judgements.4. Behaviour assessment and other performance appraisal tools/systems are sometimes regarded as the silver smoking that provide solve all problems related to human resources. 5. And finally, these assessment tools are troubling the organization simply because it emanates from a department (HRM) that has weak foundations. It is an understatement to say that behaviour assessment tools are very difficult to understand and are all too complex to be used usefully.This stems from the fact that even HR specialists do not agree on what constitutes a correct performance appraisal system. Confusion abounds in the HRM world on how to standardize systems. Each company has their aver version on how to observe and verify employee performance. W orse, each company devises their methodology based on their needs and uses appraisal systems for varying reasons. The use of HRM behaviour assessments has its advocates and its critics.This polarization adds to the problem as members of the organization would be in a tug-of-war on how to proceed if ever they will decide to use much(prenominal) tools. Advocates of Behaviour judgement Systems Amy Delpo in The Performance Appraisal Handbook harps on the benefits behaviour assessment tools and she said, If youve been told to conduct performance evaluations its because the people who run your company realize that a performance evaluation system can deliver important benefits and improve the success of each employee, each department, and ultimately, your entire company (2005).She indeed lists the expected outcomes as follows motivate employees to perform better and produce more help employee identify the ways in which they can develop and grow increase employee morale improve resp ect employees seduce for their managers and senior management foster not bad(predicate) communication between your staff and you identify poor performers and help them get on spoil and lay the groundwork to fire poor performers lawfully and passablyly when they dont improve.One of the reasons for the implementation of performance appraisal system is the need for building a strong organizational culture and many managers feel that the said appraisal system will guarantee correct data on what and where adjustments must be made to help the company move closer into that place where every employee is aware and always striving to maintain that organizational culture. On this great need, Mathis and capital of Mississippi explains the motivation to put in place such a system and he saidEvery organization has a culture, and that culture influences how executives, managers, and employees act in making organizational decisions the financial scandals in many firms in recent year illustr ate the consequences of an anything goes organizational culture. (1989) What ignited the revolution for the use of behavioural assessment tools according Armstrong came from the landmark works of McClelland in 1973 and Boyatzis in 1982.McClelland suggested that Criterion referencing or validation is the process of anlysing the key outlooks of behaviour that differentiates between effective and less effective performance (cited in Armstrong, 2003). This was later developed by Boyatzis when he said that competency is, A capacity that exists in person that leads to behaviour that meets the job demands indoors the parameters of the organizational environment and that , in turn, brings about desired results (as cited in Armstrong, 2003 ). No self-respecting manager can resist the promise of behaviour assessment systems.Advocates of performance appraisal tools based their defense on a theory of change Force Field Analysis that was put forward by Kurt Lewin. Lewins idea as summarized by Sinclair-Hunt and Simms, is described below The idea is that a situation stays the same nevertheless when the forces for change are equivalent to the forces resisting it. The organization is and then in equilibrium. Change happens when the forces for change outweigh the forces for restraint. Conversely, where the forces for restraint outweigh the forces for change, things remain the same.If handled carefully, the driving forces can overcome resistance. (2005) Those who believe in this approach could not be blamed. A case study of British airways forceful changes made on the organization resulted in averting bankruptcy and amazing growth. Sinclair-Hunt and Simms reveal a specify of the revolution that occurred in the said UK company, Between 1982 and 1987 British Airways went from a publicly owned company with bureaucratic command culture and huge losses and change magnitude market share to a privately owned company with a market and good driven culture and profits of over $4 00 million. (2005) The authors (Sinclair-Hunt & Simms) then listed the cause of the change was attributed to the followers Massive reduction in the workforce from 59,000 to 37,000 people Training programmes to develop appreciation of the business as a service industry Profit sharing, a bottom-up budgeting system, a user friendly computer system and the CEO engaging in question and answer sessions all served to emphasise the new participative management style Many organizations are banking on the above-mentioned statements about change.They are mobilizing their HR departments to apply enough pressure for peremptory change to occur. Critics of Behaviour Assessment Systems Critics on the use of ill-conceived behaviour assessments asserts that theses procedures contain loosely held assumptions and fallacies that if there is an input then there will be an output and if enough pressure is done then change will occur. This idea was debunked by Sinclair-Hunt and Simms using the work o f Kanter and associates and they saidKanter et al. (1992) suggest that Lewins feigning of change is too simplistic. They argue that Lewins model is based on the view that organizations are essentially stable and static. They disagree with the idea that change results only from concentrated effort and that it happens in one direction at a time. Kanter et al. (1992) argue that change is multi-directional and ubiquitous in other words, it happens in all directions at once and at a more or less continuous process.This complexity can help to explain wherefore Lewins model may not seem to have much relationship with real lie, where change seems a more confused process. (2005) Herein lays the problem with those relying so much on assessment to encourage change when they fail to include in their system the idea that every aspect of the organization must be considered and all the forces at work in the enterprise as well.On the aversion for the idea that aggressive action will bear immedi ate positive results, Campbell (1989) said, We need reminding that trainees do not just fall out of some great trainee bin in the sky they probably have rather long and varied organizational histories, which have created certain attitudes, values and behaviors relative to specific teaching experiences (as cited in Baldwin & Magjuka, 1997). Baldwin and Magjuka supports the idea of deliberate planning and implementation of organization change and not a one shot fix all scheme as is evident in most HR list of suggested solutions and they saidAn assumption common to most training guidebooks is that the learning context can be managed or formulaed in a way that will match trainee cognitions and, ultimately, training effectiveness. However this assumption tends to overdo the complexity of managing contextual factors in organization. We contend that the complexity stems in large part from the difficulty of predicting how employees will attach meaning to management acts, and the reality that, for organization employees, training is not an isolated event or singular activity, but an episode that occurs among many other organizational episodes experienced by those employees.(1997) Problems Encountered in the accredited World Clampitt in his book Communication for Managerial Effectiveness shows that behaviour assessment is very difficult to execute properly in the real world. This is because the feebleness of human being in terms of their personal agenda and other self-serving interest hinders them from giving an objective assessment. Using the words of Sissela Bok, Clampitt showed what the ideal scenario should be and how far is reality from itAt its best, discretion is the intuitive ability to discern what is and is not intrusive and injurious, and to use this discernment in responding to the conflicts everyone experiences as insider and outsider. It is an acquired capacity to fly in and between the worlds of personal and shard experiences, coping with the moral questions about what is fair or unfair, truthful or deceptive, helpful or harmful, Inconceivable without an cognisance of the boundaries surrounding people, discretion requires a sense for when to hold back I order not to bruise, and for when to reach out.(as cited in Clampitt, 2005) For his final analysis (Clampitt) on his arriere pensee for performance appraisal systems and the like is partly seen in the following statements Much ink has been spilled over the issue of performance appraisals, Business journals, periodicals, and books are filled with handling on how to more effectively conduct the performance review. And with good reasons there is probably no greater area of employee dissatisfaction. In fact, although most organization maintains a formal performance process, few achieve their objective Other complaints abound.Unfair rating scales, neediness of objectivity, and lack of specific examples to back up the evaluation(2005) Using Baldwin and Magjukas insights on the s low learning process experienced by an employee. It is now clear why employees would view such behavioural assessment systems as unfair. Management can be designing an assessment procedure that will look for behavioural changes that are not present. Not because the employee is lazy or has no annunciation to change but as oriented out by Baldwin and Magjuka, it is not there yet because the natural process of learning has not yet taken its course.Clampitt adds the following reasons for the infectivity of this HR system 1) managers resist the appraisal process because it is used to accomplish multiple goals that are sometimes incompatible 2) many mangers feel compelled to inflate ratings in favor of their department and 3) many managers resist the appraisal process because they feel that they are playing God (2005). Goals of Behaviour Assessment The following is the discussion of the generally accepted goals of behaviour assessment and will be used as a basis for understanding the fa ilure of said assessment tools in achieving the following objectives.The first common reason for incorporating such practice of evaluating employees stems from the great need to ascertain how competent a worker/employee is in his/her given position. Background training can be gleaned from the works of Woodruffe (1990), Competency is a person-based concept which refers to the dimensions of behavior lying behind competent performance. Woodruffe (1990) added that competence is A work-related concept which refers to areas of work at which the person is competent (as cited in Armstrong, 2003).The Need for Accuracy This paper propose that one of the reasons that behaviour assessment is a very much troubled aspect of HRM practice is due to the fact that there is no room for error on its findings and recommendations. Consider the following documented events on UKs experience with a failed assessment for correct pay costs as described in Armstrong and Browns book gainful for Contibution C hancellor Gordon Brown (regarding the most publicized UK pay developments in a single month May 1998- ), saw the UK private sector earnings growth of 5.6 percent as giving sober cause of concern, threatening the competitiveness of the UK economy and the maintenance of price stability in June the Bank of England cited wage increases outstripping productivity growth as the prime justification for an increase in interest rates that rising wages could, destroy the enormous prize of frugal growth and stability. (1999) Amy Delpo on the need for accurate and fair appraisal issued the following warning, As you may have been told, conducting a shoddy performance appraisal can get your company and you into legal trouble. at that place is no point in sugarcoating it for you Writing the wrong things on a performance appraisal or doing the appraisal unfairly or improperly can have ravage consequences if you are sued by an employee (2005) Promises Are Made to be Broken There is an expectati on amongst employees that if they did a fairly good job then management will notice. This is reinforced by the fact that a regular performance evaluation is being conducted by the people from HRM.This leads to the expectation that salary will be modify based on competency and the workers striving not only to achieve a higher level of performance but also on a higher degree of conforming to what is believed to be as admirable behaviour befitting a model employee. It will be such a disappointment for said employee to discover, or when he realizes after a few years of no wage increase, that the job performance evaluation was worth(predicate) nothing. Armstrong and Brown explain why promises of performance related pay is most often a figment of imagination, and the authors saidThe motor industry presents a good example of the competitive pressure which have forced similar changes in pay and working practices across many sectors. The threat in a ruthlessly competitive European market f rom Far East manufacturers, and the opportunities for an increasingly concentrated set of globally organized companies to shift production to lower cost locations (VW in Eastern Europe), or closer to new markets (Mercedes and BMW in the United States), means that the European firms simply cannot afford to have uncompetitive wage costs which are out of line with the productivity and performance of alternative location. (1999)If this is the case then HR specialist must stop deluding employees that the job performance will affect their pay grade. The truth is HRM needs the evaluation to enforce change and to make personnel related decisions but could not deliver on its promise to the employees for economic reasons this has disheartened not a few employees. The Problem with HRM After all these things are said and done, the most unbelievable reason perhaps as to why behaviour assessment is such a troubling aspect of management in general and HRM in particular lies in the fact that the de partment tasked to design such evaluation systems is in trouble itself.Consider the following insights from David E. Guest, UKs own expert on the study of human resource management, and he said There has been a rash of studies demonstrating a positive association between human resource management (HRM) and performance, providing encouragement to those who have always advocated the case for a typical approach to the management of human resources. While these studies represent encouraging signs of progress, statistical sophistication appears to have been emphasized at the expense of theoretical rigour. (1999) In Australia the problem of HRM is a concern.Graham Andrewartha likes to believe that human resource management is a management specialty that has not yet achieved professional status. Further, because of its monopoly over the people management area, it has diverted other managers from taking responsibility for people issues and unintentionally contributed to the continuing de cline in people skills in Australian organization HRM has always been reshaping itself, continuously changing and innovating, et not really changing at all. It requires foundation not innovation to be effective. (1998) ConclusionThe reason why behaviour assessment has met a lot of tilt in organizations around the world and most especially in Australia is due to confusion on what a correct and beneficial employee-performance-evaluation-system should look like. This is exacerbated by the lack of positive results on the basis of the use of such system for corporate and personnel gain. The answer to the query can be found in all these and more importantly on HRM need to change first before it can expect change from the corporation it wishes to serve. References Andrewartha, Graham. (1998). The Future Role of Human resourcefulness Management. In G. L. ONeil & R.Kramar (Eds. ) Australian Human Resource Management Current Trends in Management Practice. Australia Woodslane Pty Limited . Armstrong, Michael. (2003). Human Resource Management Practice. London Kogan Page Ltd. Armstrong, M. & Brown, D. (1999). Paying for Contribution. London Kogan Page Ltd. Baldwin, T. T. & Magjuka, R. (1997). Organizational Context and Training Effectiveness. In J. K. Ford et al. (Eds. ). New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Berger, L. A. & Berger, D. R. (2000). The fee Handbook A State-of-the-Art guide to Compensation Strategy and Design. New York McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Clampitt, Phillip.(2005). Communication for Managerial Effectiveness 3rd ed. London Sage Publications Ltd. DelPo, Amy. (2005). The Performance Appraisal Handbook Legal and Practical Rules for Managers. 1st ed. CA Consolidated Printers, Inc. Guest, D. E. () Human Resource Management and Performance A Review and Research Agenda. In R. S. Schuler & S. E. Jackson (Eds. ) Strategic Human Resource Management. Oxford Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Mathis, R. L. & Jackson, J. H. (1989). Human Resource Management. 11 th ed. NE South-Western. Sinclair-Hunt, M. & Simms, H. (2005). Organizational Behaviour and Change Management. UK Select Knowledge Limited.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Singers goal in the article Famine, Affluence and Morality is to enchant pot to think contrastingly about famine relief, charity, and morality. These ar key issues that people motivating to be much(prenominal) aware of and act on them. passel who are financi altogethery stable and comfortably off should take more of an active role by giving more. They should feel obligated in back up those in need. There are umpteen people suffering severely, those who can sponsor are doing nothing. People should be more willing to deed over help rather than being obtuse & self-centered.Singer argues it is wrong for a person to suffer from homelessness, hunger, or lack of medical attention. These needs are essential in life and without them can alimentally lead to ones death. Another argument Singer gives is if a person is wealthy, they are more than capable to help others financially. They need to feel obligated to do so. Instead of a person spending money on extras and materialistic it ems for themselves, they should donate that money to the distressing. The money should help with necessities for the poor and uplift them. On the same point he points out, one should not sacrifice if it would put them in harms way.Singers fancy of marginal utility is that one should give as much as possible to the unfortunate it should never create a hardship to the giver. This would be doing more harm than good. When a person contributes to the poor, it should not financially affect their lifestyle by putting them in debt, homeless, or without food. People that are wealthy and advantageously off should donate to the people that are unfortunate and suffering. It would be morally correct to help the less fortunate. An argument Singer makes is the distinction between a duty and charity.He states, That a duty is an action that is an obligation and charity is an action of something that is good to do but not obligated (Singer, 1972, p. 232). An example he gives is if a child were dro wning, it would be a persons duty and obligation to help to save the child from drowning. Singer questions why this is any different from charity. Charity is generosity and helpfulness especially toward the needy or suffering also aid addicted to those in need (Dunignan, 2013). Singer feels that people that retain the means and are able to help by giving money to the poor should feel obligated and it be there duty.They should be obligated to do this because it is a persons duty to help others from suffering. He does not understand why a person should feel they take hold a election to prevent help suffering, it should be a duty that we have an obligation to do. An argument I would have with Singer is about being fair and right. I do not agree that all people need to be obligated to give away their hard-earned money to the poor. I would agree that people who are born into wealth or have received a large inheritance should be obligated to donate and not the people that have worked many years to get to that state.People born into wealth or have received a large inheritance have been given a gift. Therefore, they should be inclined to share the gift by giving some of the money to the poor. (If money is a gift to a family or they were born into it, they should donate and give to the poor. They did not work for the money it was a gift, therefore a person should feel obligated as their duty to give to the poor. ) People that are well off because of many hours or having multiple jobs should not have to give their money away to the poor.They have worked hard to receive it so they would not have to live paycheck to paycheck. I think these types of people have earned the right to live comfortably and do what they want with their money. They have put the clipping and work into making the money and it should be theirs to do what they want. Famine, Affluence, and Morality was written in response to an immediate humanitarian crisis. In November 1971, the confluence of w ar, poverty, and natural happening had created nine million refugees in East Bengal, and Singer was appealing for immediate life-saving aid (Jamiesom, 2005, p. 153). An Irish rock musician, Bob Geldof, immediately rushed into the studio with an all star line-up to record Do they Know Its Christmas? The record sold nearly 4 million copies in the United Kingdom alone, and was quickly followed by We Are the World, produced by Quincy Jones, in the United States.Geldof went on the organized the LiveAid concert the following July, which was broadcast simultaneously from London and Philadelphia, and viewed by 1. 5 billion people around the world. The records and concert ultimately raised between $100 and $500 million for famine relief in Africa (Jamiesom, 2005, p. 53-154). These celebrity-driven, media-centered projects were valuable for a number of reasons. They created cognizance of suffering in Africa, motivated people to act, and raised large sums of money(Jamiesom, 2005, p. 154). S ince 1972, the a lot more wealth people have stepped up into given aid to the poverty stricken. The article did raise awareness off the issue that needed to be addressed. In my opinion the wealthy have become more proactive in helping the poverty stricken. Leaving the middle class to do what they can when they can.ReferencesDuignan, B. (2013). Encyclopedia Britannica. http//dx.doi.org/http//www.britannica.com/EB checked/topic/1053194/Peter-Singer Jamiesom, D. (2005). Duties to the distanceAid, assitance, and intervention in the developing world. The Journal of ethics, 9, 151-170. http//dx.doi.org/ProQuest doi http//dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10892-004-3324-9 Singer, P. (1972, Spring). Famine,affluence,and morality. Philosophy and public affairs, 1, 229-243. http//dx.doi.org/http//www.Jstor.org/stable/2265052