Wednesday, October 30, 2019

IT425-1403A-01 Phase 5 System Integration & Deployment (DB) Assignment - 1

IT425-1403A-01 Phase 5 System Integration & Deployment (DB) - Assignment Example Focus will be on producing a work breakdown structure for the system. A work breakdown structure requires the project manager to divide a large project into small and manageable tasks. In this case, there is a need to breakdown the entire project into seven interrelated activities in order to simplify the entire process. This will give the project manager the autonomy to monitor the overall progress and thus be in a position to mitigate any delays (Tutorialspoint, 2014). The Ordering system for Pizza Restaurants requires the dedication of all the stakeholders especially considering that some of the activities need to be performed at the actual restaurant’s premises (Reeves, 2010). This means that the last two stages are important since they will involve the total corporation of users. Migration of the entire system is a vital activity that characterizes the deployment and operational stages and thus should be handled with extra attention. Another activity is the retire of the system should it become absolute. Even though this is not expected to happen in the near future, all the necessary plans should be put in place to ensure there is a smooth rollover (Schiesser, 2010). Maryland Department of Information Technology (2014). Phase 6: Development Phase. Retrieved from

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Fragile X Syndrome

The Fragile X Syndrome The fragile X syndrome is one of the most prevalent mental retardation problems that are inherited to generations. The clinical features of people with this syndrome are very subtle and hard to diagnose. Recent progress in the field of molecular biology and genetics has outlined the molecular mutation, that causes the syndrome was a triplet repeat mutation. Due to repetitive CGG repeat the respective proteins are not expressed. New molecular methods including direct probe analysis and PCR analysis, have simplified the process of diagnosis. The nature of the gene, their respective gene product and its function has not been yet found clearly. Inheritance may be found due to common ancestral flow of X chromosome at birth. Introduction Fragile S syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the intellectual, physical and mental factors of a human being. It is also known to be martin-bells syndrome and the effects range widely from mild to severe. It is caused by the mutation on the X chromosome of the individual in a single gene called the Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1). Psychological problems such as mental retardation may be caused by two main factors, the physical environment or the genetic factor that is hereditary. As we mainly focus on the genetic factor, the FRAXA locus in xq27.3 is associated in causing fragile X mental retardation. Therefore based on molecular genetic testing of FMR1 gene, fragile X syndrome can be diagnosed. Women are only 50% affected by this syndrome when compared to males due to the fact that they have two X chromosomes where as males have one. Most common symptoms found are seizures, mood instability, attention deficit, sensory over stimulation, aggression, autism, speech diso rder and sleep differences. This syndrome also shows certain physical symptoms such as long narrow face, large ears enlarged testacles in males, flexible joints etc., various researches is being done across the world to find a solution for the disease. Various genetic techniques has been developed and handled to identify the fragility of the chromosome. There has been so much improvement in research but a definite solution has not been obtained. The treatment for this syndrome is usually a multidisciplinary approach which includes occupational therapy, medical managements, education and linguistics. The Fragile X Mutation: Genes are the precursors of specific protein molecules which in turn are specific for various functions of the body. The major cause for the fragile x syndrome is due to the mutation in one single gene called the fragile x mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene which is the precursor for the fragile x mental retardation protein FMRP. This protein is responsible for the normal development and functioning of the brain. Men have only one x chromosome so presence of mutation in that chromosome will cause the disease whereas in females, they have two x chromosomes and hence full mutation in one copy makes them carriers of the syndrome and they may be affected partially according to the amount of mutation and number of cells expressing the FMR-1 gene copy. The inheritance found on the chromosomes is termed as x linked recessive inheritance which is more complex than the normal x linked genes. Fig.1 X chromosome with fragile site [1] Fig. 2 A photograph of X chromosomes showing a fragile site from both a male and a female [2] The number of CGG repeats on the FMR-1 gene determines the complexity of the syndrome. The repeats are classified as short, medium and long repeats. The short repeat of about six to fifty times which is found very common. These short repeats are mostly unstable and do not definitely cause the syndrome. Yet a genetic counseling along with certain tests is recommended. The medium repeat is about 50 to 200 times and is called permutation. The fragile x mental retardation protein (FMRP) has lower risk of the syndrome as short sequence repeats. The long repeats are usually more than 200 and are termed as full mutation where the complete FMR-1 gene is altered and production of the FMRP protein is totally stopped. Among the people with full mutation or long repeats, men will have the fragile x syndrome and women will be carriers. Fragile x mental retardation protein (FMRP) The FMRP protein is found in the ribo-nucleoprotein complex and is encoded by the FMR1 gene. The FMRP weighs up to 60-70 kD. This protein is associated with the polyribosome or polysomes. Two RNA-binding domains, KH domains or K homology domains are possessed by this protein and it binds to fetal human brain to 4% approximately. It also has the ability to bind to its own mRNA. Even a small amount of mutation in one of the KH domain could stop its interaction with the polysomes leading to the fragile x syndrome. Inheritance of fragile x syndrome Males have xy chromosome and hence have only one FMR-1 gene where as females have xx chromosomes and hence they have two FMR-1 genes. On the F1 generation each parent transfers one chromosome each to the offspring where the transfer of the FMR-1 gene is determined. Therefore the possibilities of their offsprings being affected are grouped under two conditions. Condition-1 [3] If a male has a mutated gene in his chromosome it can be transferred only to his daughter because only the Y chromosome can be transferred to his son by him. So if he was crossed with a female with normal genes all their sons will be normal and the daughters will have one fragile gene and remain as carriers. father à ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ y mother x xà ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ (carrier daughter) Xy (normal son) x xà ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ (carrier daughter) Xy (normal son) à ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ fragile x gene Condition-2 [4] If a female has one mutated gene in her chromosome and is crossed with a normal male then there is 50% chance of all the offsprings, be it male or female to have the syndrome. father x y mother à ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ xà ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ (carrier daughter) à ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ y (fragile son) x xx(normal daughter) Xy (normal son) à ¡Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¹ fragile x gene Symptoms The symptoms of fragile x syndrome are categorized into : Physical Large eyes Prominent forehead Large testecles Seizures Cognitive development Social and emotional hyperactivity Behavioral Shyness Social anxiety Speech and language Rapid and repetitive Inability to adopt words Over-talkative Autism Flapping of hands Poor eye contact All these symptoms need not be necessarily seen. A combination of various symptoms may vary from person to person based on the amount of gene altered in their chromosome. Sometimes there may also be no visible symptoms making the chances of early diagnosis even worse. Molecular diagnosis [5] The chromosome associated with the syndrome is classified into three major types based on the number of CGG repeats as Normal allele the CGG repeat in FMR1 is 6-50 PCR analysis is sufficient to study all normal type genes Specific point mutations and mosaicism must be studied using specific types of pcr or other molecular methods Visualization is achieved either by radio-active labeling or auto radiography followed by automated sequencing Agarose gel electrophoreses may be used for simple separation analysis with stains such as ethidium bromide. Appropriate size markers and size controls are very important. Controls used for analysis mut approximately contain 50 repeats. Pre mutation The CGG repeat in FMR1 is 55-200 PCR analysis is not possible hence southern blot is always preferred. Since both premutation and full mutation have methylation status, specific methylation sensitive enzymes such as EagI or NreI is used to resolve the size of the fragment. Methylated alleles are cut only by one enzyme where as non methylated normal alleles are cut by both the enzymes. Prenatal diagnosis is very important for pre mutation carriers. Rather than normal PCR a radioactive PCR can be used to test for premutation and then the result can by confirmed using southern analysis. Full mutation The CGG repeats in FMR1 ranges from 200 to thousands This can be analysed only by a southern blot technique. At complications, if a confirmable result could not be obtained from a southern analysis then a radio active PCR can be run combined with a linkage analysis and the result can be confirmed with southern blotting. Intermediate alleles The CGG repeats in FMR1 gene is usually between 45-55 Since they are in the overlapping region between stable normal allele and unstable premutation alleles, diagnosis and interpretation is very difficult Diagnostic Tools and Methods With the advancement in technology DNA tests are always effective in diagnosis of fragile x syndrome. With the findings of Sutherland et al. that folic acid deficient cell culture medium was able to induce a fragile site at xg27.3 cytogenetics was the major way to determine the presence of the syndrome but after cloning of the FMR-1 gene direct methods for identifying the x linked gene has become possible. By using monoclonal antibodies specific to FMRP it is also possible to show the expression of FMR-1. The most common methods used for diagnosis in the genetic level are Polymerase Chain Reaction Southern Blotting Antibody test Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis Single strand confirmation polymorphism Non-radioactive molecular diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction Polymerase chain reaction may be defined as a technique where one copy of a DNA is amplified into numerous copies at a rate of 2n where n is the number of cycles. It is achieved under specific conditions of temperature, along with polymerase enzyme. PCR amplification is one of the preliminary methods in diagnosing fragile x syndrome. Since the syndrome is associated with CGG repeats PCR is not considered as the best method always, since the amplification across C-G composition could be unreliable for PCR technique. However now its very much possible for a PCR to identify CGG repeats in combination with various techniques. methylation specific PCR of the FMR1 locus fluorescent methylation specific PCR methyl-CpG-binding PCR Some of the major advantages of PCR are that it is less time consuming, a very small amount of the sample is enough to produce numerous copy and the tri-nucleotide repeat in the FMR-1 gene is accurately sized. There are also various disadvantages of this technique. When there are more than hundreds of tandem repeats it is impossible for the PCR to determine the complete mutation which may give a different result. Due to differential amplification PCR is incapable of detecting mosacism between pre mutation and normal alleles. Fig 3: fragile x analysis using PCR [6] Southern Blotting Southern blotting is one of the best methods of diagnosing fragile x syndrome. It is modtly used as the confirmatory test after PCR. The variations between the mutations and permutations along with the amount of methylation occurred can be clearly obtained by the southern blotting technique. The process can be summed up in two simple steps: Step 1: the patients DNA is digested using restriction enzymes. Step 2: southern hybridization is carried out along with specific radioactive probes after separation of FMRI region. Using southern Blotting, the differences in full mutation and pre mutation can be easily identified. Full mutations usually cause smearing of the band and are always unstable. The only advantage of this technique is that its accuracy whereas its labor intensive, time consuming. The major drawback of this method is its inability to determine the exact number of tandem repeats of the CGG nucleotides which is very much necessary in determining whether the patient is completely affected or a carrier. Fig 4: fragile x analysis by southern blot [7] N refers to normal Specific tools for analysis DNA probe A DNA probe can be defined as a single strand of DNA which act as a template to identify the target DNA molecule. To identify the fragility of chromosome on the DNA specific probes were designed which increases the accuracy rate of the diagnosis. Chemicon (Millipore) [8] has designed a special probe named The CHEMI probe which is labeled with dioxegenin to detect the CGG repeats in the FMR-1 gene. Markers There were special markers called the microsatelite markers used in linkage analysis. This came to an end with the advent of modern techniques. However these markers are now being used under special circumstances like prenatal diagnosis where southern blotting has failed. Some of the markers used are DXS548, FRAXAC1 and FRAXAC2 combined with PCR. They are considerably accurate and they undergo low recombination mechanism with CGG repeats. Treatments There are no gene therapies or genetic treatments available for fragile x syndrome though a lot of other therapies are available which include speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and behavioral therapy. There are also a large number of medications available as listed in the table below: Symptoms Medications Seizures Mood instability à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Carbamazepine (Tegretol) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Valproic acid or divalproex (Depakote) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Lithium carbonate à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Gabapentin (Neurontin) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Lamotrigine (Lamictal) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Topiramate (Topomax), tiagabine (Gabitril), and vigabatrin (Sabril) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Phenobarbital and primidone (Mysoline) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Phenytoin (Dilantin) Attention deficit (With or without hyperactivity) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) and dexamethamphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ L-acetylcarnitine à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Venlafaxine (Effexor) and nefazodone (Serzone) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Amantadine (Symmetrel) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Folic acid Hyperarousal Sensory over-stimulation (Often occurs with ADD/ADHD) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Clonidine (Catapres TTS patches) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Guanfacine (Tenex) Aggression Intermittent explosive disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (Often occurs with anxiety and/or depression) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Fluoxetine (Prozac) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Sertraline (Zoloft) and citalopram (Celexa) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Paroxetine (Paxil) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Fluvoxamine (Luvox) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Risperidone (Risperdal) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Quetiapine (Seroquel) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Olanzepine (Zyprexa ) Sleep disturbances à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Trazadone à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Melatonin Table 2: symptoms and medications for FRAXA [9] (*these prescriptions have serious effects. DO NOT INTAKE ANY OF THESE WITHOUT CONSULTING A MEDICAL PRACTITIONER) Current Research Gene Therapy: studies are carried out on the recombination strategy of the target gene, whether removal or replacement of the defective gene with a recombinant gene would eliminate the syndrome. Protein Replacement Therapy: research is being carried out on the possibility of producing FMR protein and supplying to the patients through external sources like food or tablets. Psychopharmacology: research is being carried out in finding medications for all the symptoms of fragile x syndrome. Conclusion Fragile x syndrome is one of the genetic diseases that causes psychological problems due to the lack of FMR protein responsible for the mental behavior of the person. The protein is not expressed in the individual due to fragility of the FMR1 gene in the x chromosome. Though PCR and southern blotting are the only tools available for diagnosis they are considerably accurate and research is being carried out on various re-combinative tools for diagnosis. A complete cure has not been still devised for the syndrome though various behavioral and physical therapies help the patients gain psychological strength.

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Story of an Hour Essay -- American Literature Kate Chopin Feminism

The Story of an Hour 'The Story of an Hour' is one of Kate Chopin's most famous short stories. There is a great deal of marital instability in the story by Chopin because most of her well-known stories and novels deal with a woman who wishes for freedom or a marriage that is out of balance. In 'The Story of an Hour,' Chopin deals with an ironical twist; it is that the wife in the story, Louise Mallard, does not realize she is displeased with her marriage until she is told that her husband has been killed in a train accident. For an hour, Louise believes her husband's death and sets about planning her future in her mind; when she discovers the rumor of his death is not true, she dies of a heart problem at the end. The common argument in the story is that whether Louise dies of happiness or sadness about her husband's news. There are many ironies, echoes and foreshadowing occur throughout the story such as weeping, celebrating and dying. The theme appears one way, but in actuality, it means another way. Kate Chopin uses Louise Mallard to reflect events and feelings in her own personal life in 'The Story of an Hour.' An online informative article 'Kate Chopin: The Woman' gives detail that Kate Chopin was born in St. Louis on February 8, 1850. Her father, Thomas O'Flaherty, who was very successful in many business ventures, got killed in a work-related accident when Kate was only five years old. Her mother, Katherine O'Flaherty never remarried after her husband's death. Her grandmother and great-grandmother had also been a widow at very young age and never remarried. Her father left behind a family of four generations of women all living in the same house ('Kate'). The article goes on to mention that when Kate wa... ... Chopin, Kate. ?The Story of an Hour.? Current Issues and Enduring Question: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. Boston: Bedford, 2002. 444-45. ?Kate Chopin: The Woman.? Angelfire. 13 Nov. 2003 . Ker, Christina. ?Ahead of Her Time: An Overview of the Life and Work of Kate Chopin.? Empirezine. 25 Nov. 2003 . Rutherford, Candice. ? Kate Chopin?s ?The Story of an Hour. HotBot. 26 Nov. 2003 . Ryan, Steven. ?Depression and Chopin?s Story of an Hour.? 2002. Questia. 30 Nov. 2003 . Stipe, Stormy. ?The Book that Ruined Kate Chopin?s Career.? InfoTrac OneFile. Gale. (Jan.1999). NCLive. 1 Dec. 2003 .

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Pygmalion. The identity of Eliza how does it change and is it for the better?

Pygmalion was written by Bernard Shaw in 1914. The play tells the story of a man called Henry Higgins; a professor of phonetics who makes a bet with a friend Colonel Pickering that he can successfully pass of a low-common cockney flower girl, Eliza Doolittle as a sophisticated lady by teaching her how to speak with an upper class accent and an improvement in etiquette. Eliza Doolittle by chance meets Higgins and grabs the opportunity to better herself. Eliza wants to improve herself so she can be a flower-seller in a shop instead of on the streets. Eliza manages this after a lot of hard work and she changes in a number of ways. The changes Eliza makes include: learning to speak correctly by Higgins tuition, she learns about personal hygiene, she learns manners from Mrs Higgins; she learns how to dress properly by Mr Higgins, her confidence and self-esteem increases with Mr Higgins behaviour towards her. The ending of the play is ambiguous because although Eliza has changed her identity, she is so unrecognizable to the other street flower sellers that she no longer fits into her old class and society anymore; she is no longer sure of who she actually is. The first time we meet Eliza is when she is trying to sell flowers to people who are running for shelter from the rain into the porch of St. Paul's church. It becomes apparent that Liza is a low-common flower girl with her gutter speech. There is a note taker who is taking down what the flower girl is saying, which then leads her to think he is a police officer. At this time the flower girl is the only person who doesn't have a name. The significance of this is that, it's as if she doesn't have an identity, however she does have some sort of identity with her personality. â€Å"Thank you kindly, lady. â€Å"I'm a good girl, I am. † This evidence shows how she is has a general sense of manners, she treats people well and with consideration, which as the play continues is something that Higgins doesn't have. Higgins was treating her like she was nothing and he and her father look on her as commodity as Doolittle offers Higgins to pay for her. A change that Liza encounters is her hygiene, in order for Liza to be treated like a lady and receive her lessons; she must wash and dress properly. It soon becomes apparent that Liza is apprehensive about having a bath, one thing Liza rarely does. You expect me to get into that and wet myself all over! Not me I should catch my death†. This evidence clearly shows Liza's working class stigma – a disgrace to others around her after finding out she's never had a proper wash before. Liza's appearance also causes a controversy in the way she wears ‘rags' all the time, as appearance is an important factor when a change of identity occurs. This is a very positive change in Liza because now she has changed to be a hygienic person and looks like a lady. Throughout, the play when Liza is growing and learning every day, she gets respected mo re from other people. (Very courteous) won't you sit down? † This suggests the great respect Pickering pays Liza from the beginning. As a result of Liza's improved treatment from others, it make her self esteem increase, she gets more confident. The audience will notice Pickering acting like a true gentleman. Liza needs respect during her change in identity, so this is a positive change. After a period of time, Higgins decides to test Liza to see if she has learnt anything of what he has taught her. He takes Liza to his mother's at-home day. However, after a while Liza suddenly starts to relapse back into her old gutter speech and mind. They done the old woman in† â€Å"Gin was mother's milk to her. † This evidence suggests that Liza hasn't actually changed at all. The language she used reminds us of her old cockney flower girl image and that she still reflects on her now. There is still more work that Liza needs to do in order to be a lady, this reflects badly on her after her hard work to achieve where she was. Throughout the play, it has been seen that the way Liza is treated by Higgins is rather unpleasant, he puts her under a lot of pressure. He treats her with disrespect and with a certain dislike. Put her in the dustbin† this evidence shows how Higgins doesn't have any respect for the girl, this treatment continues throughout the play. The language used would create the effect that he doesn't like her cares what happens to Liza, it looks like they have a bad relationship, but he's teaching her to stand up to him which could be the greatest of all her identity changes, so this is a positive change to her because he is forcing her to stand up to him but it could also be a unhappy encounter because of the lack of respect at the time. Liza only originally planned to have the lessons to make her speech better, so she could achieve her dreams of becoming a flower-seller in a shop; however more fundamental changes have taken place. â€Å"she must be a princess at least† this evidence shows that she has achieve her original goals, but she has also gained some which include confidence from her new voice and appearance; her appearance has changed quite a lot, her posture changes, her manners and respect change and also her hygiene along the way. So this is a very positive change however, Liza may feel as if she has become two separated from her original plans. After Liza's hard work and determination she feels she cannot go back to the gutter. â€Å"I have forgotten my own language, and I can speak nothing but yours† this evidence suggests how she has lost her old life behind and doesn't want to be part of her old life again. Liza has grown as an independent lady and doesn't want her past to reflect her new life- but this doesn't fit into her new life because she has become so far away, she doesn't know who she really is anymore. This creates an effect on the audience because she is showing she has changed and is not the same person, she used to be. Liza has shown an external change rather than on the inside because she still reverts back to her gutter speech at certain times. Overall, Liza has changed. She has changed in many different ways which include her new identity which has come along with her improved hygiene, self-esteem/confidence, etiquette, views, goals/ambitions and her relationships such as one which formed with Freddy. Liza has found her self-importance and independence which she can now leave Higgins, without his need all the time, as she leaves with Freddy, which doesn't entirely make her happy. Liza would have liked to stay with Higgins but he didn't want her. She can't return to her previous life because Higgins has left her unfit for it, example is Liza's father Doolittle, who hates being rich. If anything Liza's transformation has taken away her identity because she no longer knows who she is; she isn't Doolittle's daughter anymore, no longer a street flower seller and no longer Higgins experiment. She doesn't know what her future holds and doesn't know what she is going to do.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Women and Equality: Current Reality or Distant Future?

Given that women now hold jobs which conventionally have not been associated with their gender, some may think that the plight to attain equality in terms of opportunities has succeeded. People sometimes accept such notion unconditionally as if gender bias has been eliminated. However, such thoughts would definitely be ideal examples of a form of fallacy: hasty generalization. In reality, such notions could not be any farther from the truth. In pursuits as simple as sports for example, women still suffer from the bias; highlighting women basketball players as evidence, their paychecks are only a meager fraction if compared to their male counterparts (Person, 2009). Furthermore, the opportunities of women in athletic pursuits are still crippled due to the presence of stereotypes. Profitability remains to be a question in forming women sports leagues or teams as businessmen still believe that men's sports would garner the most beneficial public response and attention (Person, 2009). With such examples, it is irrefutable that equality is still yet to be reached. If modern-day America still cannot be referred to as an example of a society where in men and women have equal opportunities, when would such a time come? When the time comes that headlines about women holding jobs as a minority would no longer be existent then equal opportunity among genders might have been achieved. Some may claim that such a scenario would never materialize as women are not inclined toward certain tasks. In rebuttal, is it not true that such inclinations or tendencies manifest only due to biases, stereotypes, and gender roles? It is quite interesting to think that equality may only be possibly attained if such concerns are first eliminated. Naturally, obstacles such as gender marking and administrative representation, all present in sports as well (Person, 2009), should be effectively tackled. Nonetheless, when gender distribution among jobs no longer become an issue or when a meager number of women holding high profile responsibilities no longer make headlines as aforesaid, then equality of opportunity must have been realized.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Operations Case Essays

Operations Case Essays Operations Case Essay Operations Case Essay Delos Santos, Jerome M. BMG – 10800409 Operman â€Å"Your Garden Gloves† 1. Highest productivity = 2,117 / 2 =1,058. 5 Lowest productivity = 1,965 / 4 = 491. 25 Explanation: There are many possible reasons why the productivity differs when the number of crewmembers increases or decreases. One of it is that as stated on the case the company hires new employees every year. It means that maybe the combination of workers is not effective. For example the best employees were stationed to work together and the average rated employees and their novices were grouped. This is the reason why even with fewer members the crew with better workers was able to have higher productivity. Another possible reason is that the crew with two members has better quality tools than those of the crew with four members. It affects the productivity in a way that even a crew with fewer members can produce a greater number of outputs. On the other hand, tools with bad quality can produce fewer outputs. Maybe the workers who produced les had the bad quality tools, which made them commit more mistakes and repeat their task again and again. 2. One possible reason why the owner decided to go with greater number of workers is that he saw his best workers were already on fieldwork. This made the owner descried to send the crew with four members that are have low rate. Another possible reason is that the owner thinks that the crew can already handle the job that was asked for. He would like to reserve his best workers for a job that will require higher output. 3. One of the possible qualitative issues maybe the experience that each worker has. This experience may greatly affect the performance of a worker in a way that workers with greater experience know more about what he is doing. Another is that of the quality of the tools used. This may affect the productivity in a way that the quality of output may depend on the tools used by the workers. If the quality of the tools is better the output will be better also.

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University

The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University The question of gender is actively discussed in relation to sport with references to providing the equal opportunities for female athletes. According to Title IX, any discrimination regarding the sex or gender issues is prohibited (Thornton, 2010). The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University of 2010 became one of the most controversial cases associated with the question.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was stated that the Quinnipiac University intended to eliminate the women’s varsity volleyball team because of the lack of funding and to develop a competitive cheerleading team instead. The volleyball team’s players and their coach insisted on trying the case in court because of violating Title IX in relation to providing the equal opportunities for university athletes. According to the injunction prov ided by the Judge Stefan Underhill, the volleyball team was allowed to continue the activities during the next season when the development of the competitive cheerleading team could not be discussed as the alternative to the female sport team to meet the Title IX requirements. To evaluate the effectiveness of Underhill’s decision, it is necessary to pay attention to the details of the case. The volleyball team of the Quinnipiac University and the team’s coach accentuated that the plan to eliminate the team violates Title IX because the proportion of the male and female athletes would be defied. From this point, it is possible to speak about the direct violation of Title IX in relation to providing the equal opportunities for male and female athletes. Underhill stated that the fact of discriminating female athletes’ rights was presented, and the Quinnipiac University was obliged to provide the opportunities for the team to perform during the next season (The Quin nipiac University Case, 2010). Thus, the legal strength of the argument was accentuated, and the team could be discussed as winning the case. However, there are two visions of the decision. On the one hand, the rights and interests of the women’s varsity volleyball team were met, and the fact of discrimination was stated. On the other hand, the team was allowed to perform only during the 2010-2011 season, and the question was discussed again in 2012. Thus, the decision provided by the judge lacked some details.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, Underhill concentrated on the fact that it was impossible to refer to the cheerleading team as the competitive team and to discuss that team as the alternative to the volleyball team to meet the Title IX requirements. The decision provided by Underhill was rather effective while discussing the cheerleading tea m as inappropriate alternative to the female volleyball team. Nevertheless, the controversy was associated with the fact that Underhill focused on the standards of the competitive sport teams and judged about the relevance of the standards and cheerleading team’s features to discuss it as the sport team. Underhill supported the decision in relation to the definition of the varsity sport with references to the Title IX standards (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010). It is important to pay attention to the fact that the position of the judge as the advisor or an expert to determine the standards for the varsity sport is rather controversial, and it could be more effective to focus on violating the Title IX requirements regarding the women’s volleyball team rather than on discussing the features and standards of the varsity sport. In spite of the general win of the women’s volleyball team of the Quinnipiac University in relation to Title IX, the judge’s ar gument cannot be discussed as strong and effective because it was important to concentrate on the issue of discrimination to determine the position of the team not only for one season but for the long period of time. References The Quinnipiac University Case. (2010). Retrieved from Thornton, P. K. (2010). Sports law. USA: Jones Bartlett Publishers.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Brigadier General Albion P. Howe - American Civil War

Brigadier General Albion P. Howe - American Civil War Albion P. Howe - Early Life Career: A native of Standish, ME, Albion Parris Howe was born March 13, 1818.   Educated locally, he later decided to pursue a military career.   Obtaining an appointment to West Point in 1837, Howes classmates included Horatio Wright, Nathaniel Lyon, John F. Reynolds, and Don Carlos Buell.   Graduating in 1841, he ranked eighth in a class of fifty-two and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 4th US Artillery.   Assigned to the Canadian frontier, Howe remained with the regiment for two years until returning to West Point to teach mathematics in 1843.   Rejoining the 4th Artillery in June 1846, he was posted to Fortress Monroe before sailing for service in the Mexican-American War. Albion P. Howe - Mexican-American War: Serving in Major General Winfield Scotts army, Howe took part in the siege of Veracruz in March 1847.   As American forces moved inland, he again saw combat a month later at Cerro Gordo.   Late that summer, Howe earned praise for his performance at the Battles of Contreras and Churubusco and received a brevet promotion to captain.   In September, his guns aided in the American victory at Molino del Rey before supporting the assault on Chapultepec.   With the fall of Mexico City and end of the conflict, Howe returned north and spent much of the next seven years in garrison duty at various coastal forts.   Promoted to captain on March 2, 1855, he moved to the frontier with a posting to Fort Leavenworth.    Active against the Sioux, Howe saw combat at the Blue Water that September.   A year later, he participated in operations to quell the unrest between pro- and anti-slavery factions in Kansas.   Ordered east in 1856, Howe arrived at Fortress Monroe for duty with the Artillery School.   In October 1859, he accompanied Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee to Harpers Ferry, VA to assist in ending John Browns raid on the federal arsenal.   Concluding this mission, Howe briefly resumed his position at Fortress Monroe before departing for Fort Randall in the Dakota Territory in 1860. Albion P. Howe - The Civil War Begins: With the beginning of the Civil War in April 1861, Howe came east and initially joined Major General George B. McClellans forces in western Virginia.   In December, he received orders to serve in the defenses of Washington, DC.   Placed in command of a force of light artillery, Howe traveled south the following spring with the Army of the Potomac to take part in McClellans Peninsula Campaign.   In this role during the siege of Yorktown and Battle of Williamsburg, he received a promotion to brigadier general on June 11, 1862.   Assuming command of an infantry brigade late that month, Howe led it during the Seven Days Battles.   Performing well at the Battle of Malvern Hill, he earned a brevet promotion to major in the regular army.    Albion P. Howe - Army of the Potomac: With the failure of the campaign on the Peninsula, Howe and his brigade moved north to participate in the Maryland Campaign against Lees Army of Northern Virginia.   This saw it take part in the Battle of South Mountain on September 14 and fulfill a reserve role at the Battle of Antietam three days later.   Following the battle, Howe benefited from a reorganization of the army which resulted in him assuming command of the Second Division of Major General William F. Baldy Smiths VI Corps.   Leading his new division at the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, his men remained largely idle as they were again held in reserve.   The following May, VI Corps, now commanded by Major General John Sedgwick, was left at Fredericksburg when Major General Joseph Hooker commenced his Chancellorsville Campaign.   Attacking at the Second Battle of Fredericksburg on May 3, Howes division saw heavy fighting.         Ã‚            With the failure of Hookers campaign, the Army of the Potomac moved north in pursuit of Lee.   Only lightly engaged during the march to Pennsylvania, Howes command was the last Union division to reach the Battle of Gettysburg.   Arriving late on July 2, his two brigades were separated with one anchoring the extreme right of the Union line on Wolf Hill and the other at the extreme left to the west of Big Round Top.   Effectively left without a command, Howe played a minimal role in the final day of the battle.   Following the Union victory, Howes men engaged Confederate forces at Funkstown, MD on July 10.   That November, Howe earned distinction when his division played a key role in the Union success at  Rappahannock Station during the Bristoe Campaign.          Albion P. Howe - Later Career: After leading his division during the Mine Run Campaign in late 1863, Howe was removed from command in early 1864 and replaced with Brigadier General George W. Getty.   His relief stemmed from an increasingly contentious relationship with Sedgwick as well as his persistent support of Hooker in several controversies relating to Chancellorsville.   Placed in charge of the Office of Inspector of Artillery in Washington, Howe remained there until July 1864 when he briefly returned to the field.   Based at Harpers Ferry, he aided in attempting to block Lieutenant General Jubal A. Earlys raid on Washington.    In April 1865, Howe took part in the honor guard that watched over the body of President Abraham Lincoln after his assassination.   In the weeks that followed, he served on the military commission that tried the conspirators in the assassination plot.   With the end of the war, Howe held a seat on a variety of boards before taking command of Fort Washington in 1868.   He later oversaw the garrisons at the Presidio, Fort McHenry, and Fort Adams before retiring with the regular army rank of colonel on June 30, 1882.   Retiring to Massachusetts, Howe died at Cambridge on January 25, 1897 and was buried in the towns Mount Auburn Cemetery. Selected Sources Find A Grave: Albion P. HoweOfficial Records: Howes Division at GettysburgAlbion P. Howe

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Physicians Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Physicians - Essay Example Allowing people to select their own doctors will decrease the health care costs in the economy. This move will create an environment whereby Physicians will compete for clients thus leading to better services since physicians will be expecting more referrals from satisfied consumers (Dingwall 59). Doctors should not be licensed. According to the proponents of licensing, information asymmetries in the medical filed is the main aim of licensing since the government needs to protect consumers. Patients do not have prior knowledge of the quality of services to be provided but word-of mouth through referrals and doctor reputation can solve the information asymmetry problem (Dingwall 88). The consumer has still considerable market power since he can shop elsewhere for medical services if the service provided is either expensive or poor thus improving the quality of medical services. Licensing alone is not the best solution to protect the consumers since certification is enough to rid out the incompetent health service providers. Proponents of licensing argue that it makes the licensed Physicians provide competent services in an ethical manner since it makes them accountable for the health outcomes of patients (Dingwall 97). If there was no licensing, the price of Physician services will decline since there would be more competition among the physicians thus leading to reduction in costs. The need to comply with the licensing requirements also increases the costs of services and leads to more litigations that also raise the prices of services (Shi and Singh 78). If the medical field was not regulated, the quality of medical care would increase. Licensing reduces the number of available physicians and inflates the medical costs that limiting the access of health care by the poor population. Licensing also stifles

Friday, October 18, 2019

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 12

Strategic Management - Essay Example As such there is a greater link between the innovation and firm level strategy that need to be supporting each other at the enterprise wide level. The innovation therefore without a concrete strategy may not be possible for the organizations to achieve in either short term or long term. Apple, one of the leading electronics manufacturing firms in the world started as a Personal computer manufacturer and was completely outclassed by its competitors in almost all segments of the business. However, over the period of time, its innovation strategy has led to it become one of the most innovative firms with a distinguished record for brining in innovative products in the market. This paper will therefore look into the innovation strategy of the Apple and explore as to how Apple was able to achieve the innovation and what are some of the strategies and tools that it used to achieve such position in the market. On April fool day in 1976, Apple Computer was invented by a Collage drop out Steven Wozniak and with his friend Steve Jobs to form a company that can manufacture and market the computer designed and developed by Steven Wozniak. By 1980s Apple was one of the leading manufacturers of the computers offering both the hardware and software in one PC. Apple Computers were considered as the State of the art computers providing both the efficiency and cost effectiveness and were phenomenonal in their ability to perform complex operations with more efficiency as compared to most of its competitors. Apple I, Apple II and Apple III were earlier models of the computers that were manufactured and marketed by the Apple by making more innovations into the overall design and technology of these computers. Thus the history of innovation at Apple is one of its earliest achievements as Apple continued to evolve its products by offering better and more

Outsourcing Work Overseas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Outsourcing Work Overseas - Essay Example For instance, if an employee in the current home-based organization is given a salary rate of $10 per hour and outsourcing the job would mean that the same position is given an acceptable salary of only $5 per hour, then, a savings of $5 per person per hour would be generated. Likewise, this option also considers that the skills, competencies and qualifications of the workforce are significantly at par with those employees at home. Concurrently, the home organization acknowledges being more vigilant in terms of addressing security and control issues; which could be compromised or threatened due to outsourcing – given the external environment that puts the risk to the home organization. These issues could be justified by placing stringent control measures as well as regular monitoring and performance evaluation schemes. Finally, in terms of technological applications, as emphasized by Putra (2011), is in terms of risk-sharing, to wit: â€Å"the company could minimize risk while at the same time gain access to latest technologies and best practices in utilizing the new system to meet the business objectives† (par. 16). Sharing of knowledge, expertise and applications in required technological systems and processes are likewise facilitated through outsourcing. Strain, M. (2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Production. Retrieved from Hearst Communications, Inc.:

Effect of Technology Development on Management Consulting Profession Essay

Effect of Technology Development on Management Consulting Profession - Essay Example In addition, as technological innovations become available, possibilities increase and so does the cost but what technological advancements has given to management analysts, that not only has helped them in boosting their managerial skills by analysing and proposing alternatives to improve an organisation's structure but has also enabled management consultancy to acquire a division that would help reorganize the structure of the firm and eliminate technological complexities. Information technology cannot by itself change the inherent inflexible nature of its tools but any profession particularly on the management side whether it be financial management, strategic management or consultant management by using the developing trend of information technology can change its effect with respect to any organization infrastructure in such a way that they use these tools in two ways. "First, by reengineering the way that existing tasks are carried out. Second, by creating new tasks and opening up consultancy opportunities that were not previously possible. Changes in various management use of computer technology have enabled technological developments to be implemented in general". (Margetts, 1999, p. 17) If we consider the development of technology from management point of view, it is obvious that today organisations of all kinds have taken on new functions and new techniques that would otherwise have not been possible without merging and cooperation of information technology. Information technology in private sector companies is now widely recognised as a crucial element in a company's business strategy and the reason is transparent for the way technology has boosted the growth of consultant management, is incredible. "It is now a truism that information technology has transcended its established administrative support functions and has moved towards playing a more central role in business operations' that has not only modified its organisational structure but has also taken part in increasing the ratio of contended customers". (Margetts, 1999, p. 23) Let us take an example of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): "EDI has made it possible for two trading partners to exchange their information of trade or business transactions such as orders and invoices which otherwise would have taken umpteen effort and time. Today EDI has been widely accepted as an essential business tool used to facilitate inter-organisational transactions and sometimes to enhance internal operations by integrating internal and external systems". (Chen, 1998, p. 68) It has potentially reduced the transaction costs by eliminating duplication of effort involved in re-keying documents generated by computer in the first place. In this aspect, the development in technology started in 1980s, which first brought a dramatic increase in the use of the Internet, a global research network, consisting of a loose confederation of inter-connected networks providing services such as file transfer and electronic mail. After Internet the vast technological change was felt and re alised by the then consultant management when the use of databases, online and offline processors for report writing and interactive communication was introduced. "Prior to this, it was the consultancies who set the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

BUSINESS MODELS AND PLANNING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

BUSINESS MODELS AND PLANNING - Essay Example From the case study it was evident that company alpha engaged in seven business model innovations in which only 4 were successful. Amongst the remaining three, the company either succeeded or failed in their operations. From the case study it was evident that only the innovations which involved exploitation of existing technology and the development and exploitation of technology based products encouraged the success. The company’s failure was attributed to lack of desired quality and standards and that the market was small for the company’s turnover. On the other hand company beta only managed 3 business innovations two of which were successful while the other one failed. Success to the business model was due to acquisition and exploitation of new technology. However, the failure was due to a new product entrant into the market which faced severe completion that squeezed it out. To innovate in business model means that a company must be able to engage in mergers and acquisitions which reduces the company’s competitiveness? In addition to this, innovations in business model also require that companies are able to acquire or embrace new technology that exists within the business environment. From the research conducted between company alpha and beta it is evident that success only came when the companies involved in business models which involved acquisition of new technology and development. For example, company alpha engaged in seven business model innovations in which only 4 were successful. Only the innovations which involved exploitation of existing technology and the development and exploitation of technology based products encouraged the success. The case was similar to company beta which involved in only 3 business innovations and only two succeeded. Innovation is a rigorous process that involves companies to

Banking concept of education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Banking concept of education - Essay Example Banking concept of education Particularly, I would like to describe the manner in which the tutor conducted the lesson from the beginning to the end in relation to the arguments by Freire that related to the banking concept of education. The most specific and outstanding thing is that in the class duration, the tutor’s mode of teaching appeared to have been more inclined towards inquiry-based education or problem-solving education. However, there are instances when the tutor’s teaching methods could have been perceived as focusing on ‘depositing and withdrawing’ aspects of banking; except that in this case, it was in the contextualization of education. It was on a Friday morning Philosophy class in which the tutor introduced the concept of critical thinking. In analyzing his thoughts on the same, it dawned on me that the best approach to education should be that which seeks in solving problems through offering of solutions to the same. Critical thinking as a subject area is a diverse f ield and in most cases, students just take down notes and only revise on them when the exams period are approaching. Actually, for some students, the passing of the exams is more essential than the knowledge itself. Applying the Freire’s argument of libertarian process of education, would have greatly led to the demystification of the teaching concepts that were espoused by the tutor. For instance, in beginning the class, the tutor asked each student to theorize, and then apply in immediate contexts the instances in which we had to engage critical thinking skills in making rational decisions. The attainment of this was through the provision of a sit-in-test that lasted for 30 minutes. While this was opposed by a section of other students, I noticed that the tutor wanted each one of us to be more of problem-solvers than bankers of education. Consequently, the tutor’s selection and use of language and practical illustrations for the topic indicated his intention for the adoption of the problem-posing and solving strategies to education. From the point of view of Freire, I perceive this distinguishing and objective learning style adopted by the tutor as useful and can be further applied in admonishing creativity among the students. However, on the other hand, I perceived the tutor’s ways of teaching as those that were inclined to the banking systems of education. According to Freire, the banking concept of education mostly perceives students as just but, recipients of what their teachers tell them irrespective of their content or the factual truth behind them. In support of this, I noticed that there were instances when the tutor just mentioned concepts or recited them without proper explanations on the same. This in my opinion assumes students to be but, receiving and withdrawing machines that just re-cycle concepts as stated by the teachers. I noticed that this was a dangerous situation, despite having been used by most teachers to refill t heir narrations on students. In assessing this position, I would also agree with Freire in this line since, it only makes students to be storage devices who only store that which has been

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

BUSINESS MODELS AND PLANNING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

BUSINESS MODELS AND PLANNING - Essay Example From the case study it was evident that company alpha engaged in seven business model innovations in which only 4 were successful. Amongst the remaining three, the company either succeeded or failed in their operations. From the case study it was evident that only the innovations which involved exploitation of existing technology and the development and exploitation of technology based products encouraged the success. The company’s failure was attributed to lack of desired quality and standards and that the market was small for the company’s turnover. On the other hand company beta only managed 3 business innovations two of which were successful while the other one failed. Success to the business model was due to acquisition and exploitation of new technology. However, the failure was due to a new product entrant into the market which faced severe completion that squeezed it out. To innovate in business model means that a company must be able to engage in mergers and acquisitions which reduces the company’s competitiveness? In addition to this, innovations in business model also require that companies are able to acquire or embrace new technology that exists within the business environment. From the research conducted between company alpha and beta it is evident that success only came when the companies involved in business models which involved acquisition of new technology and development. For example, company alpha engaged in seven business model innovations in which only 4 were successful. Only the innovations which involved exploitation of existing technology and the development and exploitation of technology based products encouraged the success. The case was similar to company beta which involved in only 3 business innovations and only two succeeded. Innovation is a rigorous process that involves companies to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Person centered approaches (nursing- learning disability ) Essay - 2

Person centered approaches (nursing- learning disability ) - Essay Example In terms of social aspects, Mary has been leading an active life by going out on shopping trips and taking walks in the park. Moreover, she enjoyed collecting seashells and likewise, desired to decorate objects with those. Mary was even fond of hearing music and singing. However, the stroke, which she suffered, left her in the state of immobility. Prior to the stroke, Mary was able to communicate verbally with others and thus, enjoyed signing along to her CDs. After the stroke, Mary failed to communicate effectively and her left side of the body was consequently paralysed. In general, stroke is regarded as an unexpected attack in brain, caused at the time when blood flow gets interrupted in a human body to be reached into brain (WebMD, LLC, 2014). In addition, Mary became prone to the episodes of coughing. On certain occasions, she also became quite much reluctant towards eating as well as drinking. Thus, it is obvious that the above stated complications have been affecting the healt h conditions of Mary that restricting her to conduct daily activities smoothly. These complications can be managed in the form of adopting varied measures that may comprise taking medicines within due time, making Mary to take lesser pressure in brain as she already went through stroke and taking initiatives from preventing another stroke. From a theoretical perspective, it can be affirmed that the adoption as well as the execution of the above stated assessment may aid in providing effective care to Mary despite possessing adverse health conditions through various ways. These ways generally include determining the level of social interactions made by Mary, identifying the psychological functions that perform by Mary and most vitally making viable biological assumptions among others (Munson & Vogelsang, 2013). Gaining confidentiality and developing researches based on informed consent are the prime needs for an effective nursing practice. This eventually

Monday, October 14, 2019

The International Business Culture Business Essay

The International Business Culture Business Essay What is meant by the culture of a society, and why it is important for international managers to understand it. Do you notice cultural differences among your classmates. How do those differences affect the class environment or your group projects? Society mean by culture is a set of shared values, assumptions and beliefs that are learnt through membership in a group, and that influence the attitudes and behaviours of group members.   Culture is not innate it can be learned, and it may varies tremendously from society to society. We begin learning our culture from the moment were born, as the people who raise us encourage certain behaviours and teach their version of right and wrong. It is important for the international managers to understand it, to know how to respect towards one countrys culture. Once culture may not work well for the other country and can be interpreted as an insult. Thats why, it is really important to raise the awareness of cultural issues to the international managers to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Some cultures are difficult to observe and measure; basically managers should be keen and knowledgeable  about it. Managers must develop cultural sensitivity to anticipate and accommodate behavioural differences in various societies. As part of that sensitivity, they must avoid parochialism-an attitude that assumes ones own management techniques are best in any situation or location and that other people should follow ones patterns of behaviour. The managers should know how to adjust and able to cope up with in a diverse cultural differences. Managers can use research results and personal observations to develop a character sketch, or cultural profile, of a country. This profile can help managers anticipate how to motivate people and coordinate work processes in a particular international context. And some cultures may put more emphasis on universal commitments while others put more weight on loyalty to particular people or relationships. Dealing with national culture differences requires not only knowledge adequate behaviours but also more importantly, an understanding of deeper level assumptions and values that explain why certain behaviours are more appropriate than others.   Time effort, reputation and even contracts can be lost to an international manager because of cultural ignorance. Yes I notice cultural differences among my classmates. It can affect group projects and as well class environments. It can affect the group projects in a positive and negative way. Negative: In any group activities we were not being able to express and communicate well. Theres a language barrier that hinders once idea or we cannot easily express what we feel. Different accents, different words having different meanings and connotation that somehow misinterpret. Some of us feel there is a Social Groups and Social Alienation inside the classroom, as each of us has a different culture towards beliefs values and common interests. We dont share similarities; some of my classmates feel isolated from the others. That somehow these dissimilarities create tension in the classroom discouraging them to be more aware and be tolerant to others. Positive: We allow ourselves to accept and adopt a culture. We gain different ideas and nurture these differences that each one of us has. These things can help us in the near future in dealing with various people who have a different culture.   We became knowledgeable in diverse language and culture. We students faced in a diverse classroom and we learn different cultures constantly. We became curious and may ask questions to classmates and we are encouraged to learn another language and culture. Question 2 Critically assess the types of operational conflicts that could occur in an international context because of differences in attitudes towards time, change, material factors, and individualism. Give examples to specific countries. Owners of a company and managing foreign stakeholders who has cultural differences may create managerial challenges.   Companys employing/recruiting people from other culture may arise in operational conflicts because of their differences.   Below are the examples to specific countries where operational conflicts occur in an international context: Time Timeliness in Appointments In US and most of the first world countries really value the time. Scheduled appointments are often treated like a general guideline and to some countries it should be strictly abide by. Failure to come on time may lead to conflict and misunderstanding. Some cultures are more time conscious than others. Punctuality really matters for European countries, as time for them is wealth.   In addition, whether you are in France or in China, your business partners will appreciate your efforts to make good impression if you arrived on time. But failure to do so may feel unlikely not interested or unwell prepared to attend the occasion and business meeting. In New Zealand, they are strict in the number of hours you can work, as they dont want to stress and let the employee feel that they are overworked. They provide certain amount of working time. Filipinos has the manana habit or attitude, instead doing a project/task as early before the deadline comes, they prefer to do it the day before the deadline or in a rush. The habit of saying/doing there will still tomorrow to finish a task.   Change Western Culture considers change as a positive business opportunity. Innovation comes to different type of business in Westernise countries. Business landscape for them is rapidly evolving, changing and transforming which used as a strategy to survive in a never ending changing business trends. Change for them is a good thing as this start of a new business opportunity, start of wealth and new product to market.   Meanwhile, Muslim culture is passive to change due to effect on the gender role and religious practice. They see that a man reflects a dominance of tough, values such as achievement, assertiveness, competition and material success. Religion is something to do with faith that changes are not applicable. That it was written in a book a long time ago and should be abided. In the Philippines or any countries, which Muslim resides, men provide food and work for the family. Muslim wives have nothing to do with it, men are over powered and overwhelmed that results to a conflict.   As well failing to acknowledge the status of Muslim within a business/work or to greet them without respect can leave a bad impression. Material Factors US are considered as materialistic culture. They tend to spend lots of money and invest on material products that sometimes affects to a certain  business opportunities. They are overwhelmed with the money that they have earned and spend it. Lifestyle is very different.   On the other hand, Asian culture valued their natural resources (air, sea, land) sometimes it was misused that result to a conflict.  They give value on natural environment and make new services or products with the natural sources they possess. Individualism Western Culture is highly individualistic like US, Sweden, UK and Germany. They are very confident, independent, have recognition of personal initiative and achievement. Conflicts that UK experience, that they maintain loose social structure, they cant control a person, they more likely to be aggressive and tend to have their own way. While Asian culture  promotes cooperation and teamwork that sometimes they are very dependent to one another. Relying to each other to finish a certain task or project. In the Philippines, conflicts arise when people tend to pass their work and rely to the help of their subordinates or co-workers that results to delayed of a certain task. Without knowing the operational conflicts in an international context may result in some costly blunders in business marketing and management, it also can affect seriously the success of international business negotiations. Question 3 A.) Jo Barnes and Monsieur Hulot are both managers of Port Philip Pharmaceuticals are based in two different countries. Jo Barnes is an Australian International manager who oversees the operation in France under the management if Monsieur Hulot, a French national. Describe and Compare how each of these managers deals separately with the management issue that is affecting the operation of  Port Philip Pharmaceuticals? Jo Barnes is an Austrailan International manager, shes educated, confident, independent woman. Jo Barnes belongs to a country of an individualistic culture,  culture that shows a relative preference for the individual in a contrast to the group. This social structure are characterised by independence, the importance of individuals rights and recognition of personal initiative and achievement. The first approach of Jo was very self-centred that it became obvious that any idea of her running the training programs in testing techniques and quality control was not likely to be well received.   Meanwhile, Monsieur Hulot is a French Manager, which has an element of specialisation, unity of command, and unity of direction, with a hierarchical line of authority, initiative, and esprit de corps. All of the characteristics describes a Collectivist culture, these culture clearly distinguish between in-groups and out groups and expected to subordinate their individual interests for the benefit of their in- groups.   Two countries with different culture, one has been overpowered by being independent and educated (Jo) and the other focused on the benefit of all his subordinates (M. Hulot). They were not able to deal immediately the issues but Jo Barnes was able to adjust to the French culture that makes M.   Hulot be proud of her. B.) One of the challenges of international business in different countries is the different forces of International environment that impacts the role of management of multinational organisations. Evaluate any of the international forces that have affected Port Philip Pharmaceuticals in their operation and its management in France? International force that affects  Port Philip Pharmaceuticals in their operation and its management in France are the following: P3 in France are members of a collectivist, in whom they clearly distinguish between in groups and out groups and are expected to subordinate their individual interests for the  benefit of their in-groups like family and organisation. And value the overall good of loyalty to the group. They became dependent on each other, and trust everyone in their respective work that sometimes not well, as they rely on each other. With a relatively high power distance (uneven distribution of power). Hand in hand with a focus on individual rights and personal achievement. They are concern about their status differences and show proper respect to their superiors. This status difference exist within P3 may be based on age, social class or family role. P3 employees had high opinion for themselves and have professional knowledge. Power distance exists based on education and wealth too. P3 also possess high uncertainty avoidance, they prefer structure and predictability that results in explicit rules of behaviours and strict laws. They do not want changes. Not risk takers. They limit themselves into new ideas or innovation.   Language barrier was also became an international force to P3s management and operation. One of the hindrances that they encounter dealing that not most of them cannot speak English. Translations as well can have different meanings or connotations.   C.) A multinational company like Port Philip Pharmaceuticals deals with many constituents. Evaluate the management approach of Jo Barnes in dealing her constituents in Philippines and France. Jos management approach in the Philippines just worked very well. Filipinos were known to be hospitable. She doesnt find any hard time in dealing with them. As Filipinos knows how to respect and deal with different kinds of people. Filipinos with a high degree of Power Distance tends to accept and give importance of a cultures position (Australia) along a certain cultural dimension. They know how to accept and adopt once culture. Jo was taken out for a dinner in a wonderful restaurant, every day and night she was entertained, wined and dined. While during working hours Filipinos had listened respectfully to Jos suggestions for improvements. On the other hand, when shes in France her situation was different from the Philippines. Her first approach just failed as she tends to be an individualistic (independent, self-centred, personal initiative and  achievement) person, she was informed that her qualifications to be inadequate. As a result of this approach, the French chemists had high opinions of themselves and their professional knowledge was not prepared. It became obvious that any idea of her running training programs in testing techniques and quality control was not likely to be well received. On the next day, Jo remembered how Filipinos treated her. Jo adopted a new strategy. She made a little speech thanking M. Hulot for his courtesy in inviting her to visit the company and congratulated everybody on its fine reputation, back home on Brisbane, for the high quality of its products and the creative innovations it had made to the pharmaceutical industry. And compliment how proud she is to have French Connection.   Jo Barnes, knew already to adjust and adapt to the French Culture (new sense of respect and able to know French commitment to their areas of specialization) She was able to cope up with them. She was able to put smiles on their faces and was able to start her training with everyones listening. She set aside first her educational background, her status in Australia and her personal achievement. Instead she extends her hand to help French P3. She was able to impress everyone. She showed that she was part of the group (Collectivist) person. They have one objective and goal as a group. Thats the time brainstorm arose, with everybody contributing ideas.  Everything just went well. A solution to the problem had been found and she was confident it would be implemented without a delay.   Question 4 Today, international business people must think globally about production and sales opportunities. Many global managers will eventually find themselves living and working in cultures altogether different from their own. Many entrepreneurs will find themselves booking flights to places they had never heard of. What do you think companies can do now to prepare their managers for these new markets? What can entrepreneurs and small business with limited resource do? In order for the companies prepare their manager for the upcoming new markets. They should act global and should practice globalism. Creating a closer ties or bond to other countries by way of exchange of goods and services. Through globalisation managers may increase their interdependency and may bridge between two countries. It can also innovate ideas and can easily be implemented.   The company must start to train their managers by involving themselves in the movements of ideas, information images and people. Company should provide remuneration and rewards. Provides health and safety insurance. Treating employees as assets of the company. International managers should pay attention to trends in the global industry. Able to predict globally hot topics, products and services that the new market will be interested. Managers should develop niche expertise; their skills, knowledge and abilities should be nurtured and embraced through training. The international business environment influences how firms conduct their operations in both indirect and direct ways. Managers of globalization are causing the flows of trade, investment, and capital to grow and  become more entwined-often causing firms to search simultaneously for production bases and new markets.   Companies today must keep their finger on the pulse of the international business environment to see how it may affect their business activities Each national business environment is composed of unique cultural, political, legal, and economic characteristics that define business activity within that nations borders. This set of national characteristics can differ greatly from country to country. But, as nations open up and embrace globalization, their business environments are being transformed. Globalization can cause powerful synergies and enormous tensions to arise within and across various elements of a society. Company managers must be attentive to such degrees, adapting their products and practices as needed. International firm management is vastly different from managing a purely domestic business. Companies must abide by the rules in every market in which they choose to operate. Therefore, the context of international business management is defined by the characteristics of national business environments. Because of widely dispersed production and marketing activities today, firms commonly interact with people in distant locations within the international business environment. Finally, managers and their firms are compelled to be knowledgeable about the nations in which they operate because of the integrating power of globalization. Businesses should try to anticipate events and forces that can affect their operations by closely monitoring globalization, national business environments, and the international business environment Know how to market. The concept of personal branding that suggests individuals should think of them as a brand and market their skills.  For the entrepreneurs and small business with limited resources can do is to expand their business with new target market and customers that are not too costly. They would be able to identify their local and global potential markets. Able to determine their needs and desires. Not only discover the prospects want, but why and how they want it. It is crucial, but they should meet their wants and needs. International trade specialists can help small businesses locate and use federal, state, local, and private-sector programs. They are also an excellent source of market research, trade leads, financing, and trade events. The Trade and Development Agency also helps small and medium-sized firms obtain financing for international projects. Even if you have small business yet you think BIG that would be their competitive advantage. Making sure that their business takes the maximum advantage of those areas represent their strengths of small companies. Create a constant improvement and listen to the customers. Market driven. Listen. Act. Respond to customers needs. Maximise employee productivity. Question 5 What are the claims of those who say globalisation eliminates jobs, lower wages, and exploits workers? Some societies find globalisation as a dominating concept. That it may affect their lifestyle. A country has a complex cultural conditions such as they see exploiting people on the ground of race, gender or class, people will really try to get rid such society or country. People in a certain country feel they are being over powered with foreign workers. Just like in the views of developing countries, globalisation increase phobia of inequality. It eliminates jobs from local nationality; they somehow prioritise foreign workers because they were paid at a lower wages or labour fee. Or they have lots of job opportunities but then the wages were too low, claims are they see the potential of the foreign worker or a country that offers a cheap labour. Conflicts arise and instability.   A country can outsource cheap labour and sell it on their country in a higher price. Local manufacturers feel that they are dominated by imported products. Lots of subcontracting that reduces job opportunities.   Competition became higher and risky for local workers and labourers as international dominate their working environment.   They criticize the practice of sending good-paying manufacturing jobs abroad to developing countries where wages are a fraction of the cost for international firms. It is argued that a label reading Made in China translates to Not Made Here. Although critics admit that importing products from China (or another low-wage nation) lowers consumer prices for televisions, sporting goods, and so on, they say this is little consolation for workers who lose their jobs. When a manufacturing job is lost in a wealthy nation, the new job (assuming new work is found) pays less than the previous one. Some evidence does suggest that a displaced manufacturing worker, especially an older one, receives lower pay in a subsequent job. Those opposed to globalization say this decreases employee loyalty, employee morale, and job security. They say this causes people to fear globalization and any additional lowering of trade barriers. Because of these claims above mentioned, it may cause  issues like chauvinism, fundamentalism, and religion, ethnic and racial hatred in controversy. Question 6 A.) One strategy Yahoo! Could use to deal with the Chinese government is to allow its local joint venture partner, Beijing Founder Electronics, to deal with the government. What are the benefits and risks of doing so? The benefits of Beijing Founder Electronics (joint venture partner of Yahoo!) in dealing with Chinese government, it can produce mutual gains and clear distinction of operational freedom. It is legalise and recognised by the authority. The process of hiring and remuneration will be authenticated. There will be a secure patent and copyright protection supported by the government.   The risks/influences that the government implies to Beijing Founder Electronics: There will be levels of taxation and restrictions on profit repatriation. Have controls on risks limits and observance of professional standards. Some rules to be followed and should abide. There will be labour union rules to obey. Foreign firms should regulate it.   In such way there will be benefits and risks to consider in a local joint venture of two organizations. There might be an effect and impact but still its necessarily to address it in a legal way. B.) How does a strategic alliance differ from a joint venture? Explain the pluses and minuses of such alliances? Strategic alliance (called in a government perspective) is a form of collaboration between two or more companies that can take on many forms such as: Technology transfer, Purchasing and distribution agreements, Marketing and promotional collaboration and Joint product development While Joint Venture (called in a business man perspective) involves a potentially long term of investment of funds, facilities and resources by two or more companies to a combined venture which benefits all companies. All involved will have an equity stake in the new venture. It may be formed to: Run production facilities in another country, establish a marketing distribution presence, use complementary technologies held by each participant and Joint venture can also be used to get around country trade barriers.   Advantages or Pluses of these alliances: Forming a business relationship with a partner, or partners, may provide you with a number of advantages. You may be able to access technologies or patented processes owned by the other partner. You may be able to access their distribution network. Enable firms to share costs and risks of the research and development of new products and process. International alliances serve to avoid import barriers (Free flow of goods). Licensing requirements and other protection legislation. Disadvantage or Minuses of these alliances: Global alliances are usually slow in the making, but in a highly competitive they present a faster and less risky route of globalisation. It is not easy to negotiate and finalise an argument, but if both parties have approved the agreement everything will be fast. Problems and challenges that alliance may encounter:   Shared ownership (risks of shared assets), differences in national cultures (cultural differences; national and organisational culture), difficulties with integration of different structure and systems, distribution of power (may dominate one partner when it comes to process/ideas/outcome), competition within partners, conflicts between relative centres of decision and control. Disclose confidentiality of information, usage of patented technology or intellectual property rights, difficulty on collaborative efforts that lead to mistrust and secrecy. All the advantages and disadvantages mentioned above are inevitable in having alliances. Alliances may work and may not work well. So alliances, should consider their strengths and weaknesses. Ideal partnership takes advantage in their both core competencies that will strengthen weaker areas of a company business.   Question 7 A.) Evaluate the management strategy used by Brandon in order to finalise the deal of the Yokohama parts with Mr. Kumatsu and how it led to success or failure of the deal? The management strategy used by Brandon to finalise the deal of the Yokohama parts with newly appointed Japanese executive, Mr. Kumatsu was based on direct coordination which decision making is based on the merits of the individual situation. It should not treated that way as Japanese have a high uncertainty avoidance which pertains to dislike of any changes (resistance to change) and want the process in a prefer structure and predictable as Japanese company always look for a long-term goal. It also give least common approach that gives more pressure to Yokohama parts and able not to coordinate well. From the above mentioned strategy Brandon used, it led him to be unsuccessful with the deal. The complexity and interdependence of both parties decrease the needs to think parallel and drawn up to a contract. B.) Design an effective management strategy for Brandon to successfully achieve a good international dealing with their companys suppliers in Japan. For Brandon to successfully achieve a good intetrnational dealing with their company suppliers in Japan, the effective management strategy should be managing resistance to change. This strategy will change raises anxiety over fear of the following: Economic loss, basically Japanese company look after their economic status if the deal/opportunity is worthy to grab and if it will be beneficial to the company as well to the country. Inconvenience, they want to reduce the cause of trouble or problem. They more likely want to have an easy access. They want to be more convenient and efficiency. Uncertainty, basically Brandon must prove that theres no doubt in their business negotiations and be certain enough. Break in status-quo, Brandon must prove that it will be a breaking through deal, that he will have no fear in making it through a good negotiation and provide a quality service for Mr. Kumatsu. In using the above management strategy, it would be a successful deal as it leverages distinctive mix of orientations and strategies. It is global technological competence with unique product development. It also focuses on quality and leveraging of foreign distributor competencies. Brandon should also adapt to the demands of its new environment and culture as it remains the most effective way of maintaining a lasting competitive advantage. International Strategic Management (Strategic Formulation and Implementation) Hodgetts, Luthans and Doh, International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behaviour, 6th Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2006)

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Chatting, Online Communities, and Cyber-Rape :: Personal Response Chat Message Essays

Chatting, Online Communities, and Cyber-Rape What is an online community? An online community is a computer location where people can go to access information or to get an answer to a question that they might have. Examples of online communities are chat rooms and discussion boards. Chatting, posting, and responding to different things on the internet are some of my favorite activities. With just a click of a button, I am able to access any topic, from the weather forecast to the score of yesterday’s football game. Online communities are fun and interesting. However, some people find them addictive and harmful. My membership in an online community showed me the necessity for self-discipline so that I could enjoy the benefits of this experience without risking psychological damage. On Thursday, October 3, 2002, through Monday October 7, 2002, I performed a 5-day project that enabled me to search for an online community, become a member, observe what was going on, and respond to the community. I searched everywhere looking for a community that satisfied my interests, but I could not find one. I finally logged on to . This is a website that gives people all kinds of information, whether it is about news or music issues. While surfing this site, I found out that it had discussion boards and chat rooms. I logged on as a guest, and then I looked around the site to see if this was the community for me. I browsed through many of the discussion boards offered, but I did not post any messages because I was just observing what was going on. While observing, I read different responses people had posted on particular topics. The language that they were using was plains and simple often consisting of incomplete sentences. The messages that I read were mainly about music. Since listening to music is another one of my favorite hobbies, I felt that joining a message board pertaining to music would give me better insights into favorite choices of music. The people who logged onto this website seemed cool and easy to talk to. They were of all ages, ranging from teens to adults. They also were from varied ethnic backgrounds and lived in places all over the country.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Benefits of the Atkins Diet Essay -- Health Nutrition Diet Exercis

The Benefits of the Atkins Diet The Atkins diet has been attacked in recent years and been accused of being a fad diet that does not successfully cause weight loss and is the causes of health problems. The most criticized area of the Atkins diet is the seemingly unlimited amount of fat and meat that is allowed within the diet. This unconventional method of weight loss is the center of the animosity towards the Atkins diet. Though this diet may not be the best method of weight loss for all dieters, it is beneficial and extremely efficient for others. The Atkins diet is the best choice for dieters looking to lose a few superficial pounds quickly because dieters on the Atkins diet lose more weight within 3-6 months and do not experience the heart disease characteristics that some accuse it of. The method of the Atkins diet is to restrict carbohydrate intake, while allowing the consumption of foods that are high in protein and fat. This method has been controversial because it contradicts the conventional food pyramid, which promotes the consumption of foods with less fat and the largest proportion of food being carbohydrates like whole wheat. The food pyramid promoters do not agree with Dr. Atkins’ promotion of foods high in protein and fat. In fact, most believe that he allows an unlimited amount of protein and fat in his diet; but this is not true. The Atkins diet is supposed to contain 70% fat, 25% protein, and 5% carbohydrates (though most deviate from the fat and protein limits). Therefore in the first phase of the diet where the dieter is supposed to consume no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates, they are to also consume no more than 100 grams of protein and 280 grams of fat. So, the Atkins diet does not... source in the absence of the carbohydrates. The Atkins diet successfully loses more weight compared to low-fat diets due to its weight loss method. As I have proven, the Atkins diet can be beneficial; especially to the short-term dieter. This diet loses more weight within the first 3-6 months compared to the conventional low-fat diet; which is perfect for the dieter that wants to lose those extra few pounds before an event. Although many believe that the Atkins diet allows an unlimited amount of fat and protein, there is a limit as to how much of each the dieter is supposed to consume. And even though this limit of fats and protein is much higher than the suggested amount for the low-fat diet, it has been proven that the Atkins diet is not detrimental but beneficial to the wellbeing of the dieter’s heart and circulatory system.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Examples of a Paper I Am Writing Essay

Write a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper that answers the following questions: †¢ Have you learned something new about your own racial, ethnic, or cultural history? †¢ Trends in immigration will continue to shape the demographics of the United States. What will the U.S. population look like in the year 2050? Why do you think so? †¢ What challenges does the United States face due to the diversity of its people? †¢What are the benefits of such a diverse society? There are many benefits to having a diverse society. Some of these benefits are being able to experience so many different people and coulters in one area. Being able to living together with many different views and beliefs can open our eyes to many options. In the United States you can see many different parts of the world in its population in a small area. Look at New York City, with all the different areas such as Little Italy and Chinatown. Areas so tightly packed with people from the original regions that these sections can look almost identical to the original region. Having so much diversity in the United States it gives us a chance to open our eyes and experience things that we would never have had a chance too. †¢ How can we foster a climate of acceptance and cultural pluralism in the United States? †¢ In what ways does the media perpetuate stereotyping and prejudice? Provide examples to support your assertion. †¢ In what ways does the media help foster appreciation for diversity? Provide examples to support your assertion. †¢ How might individuals and the United States work together to reduce prejudice and increase appreciation for diversity? There are many things in our world that need to change to ensure that mankind does not destroy ourselves. If we can take the time to look at each other as individuals †¢ How might you change your own behaviors to be more inclusive and pluralistic?

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Emergent Properties Essay

Emergent Properties Emergent properties are properties that come about when smaller components combine together to form a large unit that works together for a common purpose. The idea of emergent properties is based on the fact that the whole combined unit is more efficient than the sum of all of the units. These properties cannot be seen when the organisms are separated from one another, the organisms must be together for the properties to take effect. Emergent properties have come about for the fact that when combined, these organisms can perform much more complex and advanced tasks that the organisms would not be able to complete on their own. In nature we see many emergent properties arise from evolution. When birds branched off from reptiles during their evolution, they developed feathers instead of scales. These feathers do not enable flight on their own, however when combined to form a wing they become much more efficient. When these two wings come together to form a pair of wings the result is an extremely efficient form of transportation that is not only light but also water resistant. Another example of emergent properties would be evident in our brain. Which each brain cell does not possess much computing power, however when billions of them are combined together, the result is a very efficient computing unit that can provide us with such things as thoughts emotions and character. Each brain cell alone would not be able to do these things. Emergent properties exist all around us and we even display some of these properties. One example of emergent properties would be the collaboration of many human beings. Separated, our minds are powerful, but nearly limited. Once combined we can collaborate with each other and perform many tasks efficiently, such as running a county, for example. It is not a coincidence that dictatorships are notoriously unsuccessful. There are also many emergent properties that exist beyond living things. For example when you have a hurricane, essentially all you have is air and water at various different temperatures. The randomness of this collection of air produces a large air mass that has a specific circular motion which is very powerful and devastating to anything that comes into contact with it. The air itself and the water vapor would not be able to cause this force on their own. It is the random order that makes this hurricane so powerful and hard to predict. Another example of emergence away from biology is currency. Currency or money came about as people wanted to trade with one another, but had no medium to do so. Alone, a single person would not need money. It is only useful and evident as many people come together to form a group. Without this group the money would have no value because it’s value is determined by people who are willing to trade with it. In conclusion emergence is evident throughout nature and even past it. It is the way  complex systems  and patterns arise out of a  multiplicity  of relatively simple interactions. Emergence is central to the understanding of communities and ecosystems where it be in living organisms or beyond biology.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Body Shop Proposal

Proposal Outline (4%) Proposition Statement:____________________________________________ This proposal aims to produce a 4-as campaign in Seventeen to promote The Body Shop Bath & body products to audiences aged 15 – 19. P1: Proposition (2 paras) I. The Body Shop is currently lacking in advertisement directed towards teenagers even though sales would be greatly boosted if they can manage to appeal to them. A. This is because they choose to focus on targeting working adults which is leaned towards a mature image and does not appeals to teens. B.They will lose the potential to increase their sales volume if this continues. II. There are three main possible themes that we would like to propose. A. Firstly, â€Å"Fire† will be emphasising on the strong yet feminine aspects of the product. B. Secondly, â€Å"Earth† will bring attention on the environmentally-friendly nature of the products C. And lastly, the â€Å"Air† theme showcases the comfort level of the p roducts. D. This is a proposal for an advertisement spread in Seventeen selling The Body Shop Bath & Body products. ?There is a choice of three themes for the campaign, â€Å"Fire†, â€Å"Earth†, and â€Å"Water†.The recommended products for the 4-ad campaign are to be bath & shower gel, body lotion, body butter, and body scrub. P2: Potential (3 paras) I. The Body Shop is currently lacking of advertisement directed to teenagers. A. For a cosmetics retail company, The Body Shop noticeably lacks of photographs of models with beautiful hair and perfect skin, which would attract attention of teenagers. B. Currently, The Body Shop is targeting working adults and the advertisement that they made is leaned more towards a mature image. This image does not appeal to teenagers. II.The Body Shop does not appeal to teenagers and in doing so, it loses a huge number of potential customers. A. Teenagers are not attracted to The Body Shop because of a lack of celebrity represen tation. B. With the lack of advertisement, targeted audience will not be encourage to trial purchase, brand switch and develop brand loyalty towards The Body Shop. III. Sales would be greatly boosted if The Body Shop were able to appeal to teenagers. A. The Body Shop will be able to maximise it’s profits because Singaporeans teenagers aged 15-19 are very willing to spend money on body products.B. Products such as body products could easily allow the consumer to develop brand loyalty towards the brand because they would have develop a habit for using our brand’s product. This results in repeated purchases and promotes sales in long term. P3: Possibilities (3 paras) I. The first theme, â€Å"Fire† theme will emphasize the strong yet feminine aspects of the product. A. â€Å"Fire† will pitch the products in a sexy yet elegant way, appealing to girls who want to be seen as confident and independent women. B.For example, in the Body butter advertisement, we ca n feature a model clad in only lingerie and high heels and applying body butter on her body. This would suggest that one would feel confident with their body after using our products. The main colour of this advertisement will be red, black and white to give off a Parisian feel, which represents elegance, yet at the same time emphasizes on the fiery and bold aspects of the theme. II. The second theme, â€Å"Earth† will focus attention on the environmentally friendly nature of the products.A. Products would come across as environmental and relaxing under the â€Å"Earth† theme and would appeal to both males and females because it makes them feel comfortable. B. The advertisement for bath & shower gel portray a model unwinding in a bathtub full of soapy water, implying that she had just used the product and suggest that one would feel relaxed after using the product. The background of this advertisement could be a natural setting filled with trees and plants to emphasize on the nature aspects of the theme. III.The third theme, the â€Å"Air† theme, will showcase the comfort level of the products. A. Under the â€Å"Air† theme, products would be pitch as simple yet lasting comfort, appealing to both genders because of the theme’s purity and freshness. B. One example of a body lotion advertisement under the â€Å"Air† theme is to do a compare and contrast of a model who applied the body lotion in the morning and the same model looking energetic and fresh at night to represent the lasting effects and the comfort level can be seen through the model’s cheerful appearance.The advertisement would be in pastel colours to emphasize on the theme’s purity. P4: Proposal (3 paras) I. We have decided to go with the â€Å"Earth† theme because it highlights the key feature of our product and will be effective in attracting our target audience’s interest. A. The Body Shop unique selling point is being environm entally friendly and it is also what the audience associate The Body Shop with. By going along with this theme, audience are able to identify The Body Shop because our concept will be consistent.B. B. Our target audience have a very hectic lifestyle and by portraying a product, which comes across as relaxing to them is a very feasible idea because it is what the target audience need and that is also what they are looking for. This will thus increase sales of the products. II. We have rejected the â€Å"Fire† theme because it doesn’t specifically appeals to our target audiences. A. The â€Å"Fire† theme might seem over-mature to our target audiences and they would not want to be associated with such image. B.The â€Å"Fire† theme might also be inappropriate and clashes with The Body Shop image because The Body Shop has always emphasize that beauty can be achieve even without baring a lot of skin. II. We have also rejected the â€Å"Air† theme becaus e it’s concept is very common in Body products. A. The concept of comfort in a body product is not unique and thus, would not be effective in attracting the targeted audience as it doesn’t stand out. B. Audiences are easily able to find cheaper alternatives with the same benefits. *Total number of paras: 11 (do not create any more paragraphs†¦ it’s 11, no more, no fewer)