Tuesday, October 1, 2019
Creativity and Creative Learning in Young Children
CYPOP4 Promote Young ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical activity and movement skills 1. 1 Physical activity is an essential component in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall health and well being. Unfortunately some children are not as active as they should be to prevent harmful harmful short term and long term effects on their health. * Short term health Physical activity helps children to build muscle, develops the skeletal frame, develops the heart and lung function and also helps prevent obesity. Children who are active are likely to sleep better and longer and are less likely to develop infections such as colds and flu. * Long term healthPhysical activity in young children not only supports health in the short term but can also give children a positive attitude towards sport, playing outdoors and walking. It is important to start when the children are young as when they are older they lose interest in activity. If children are not sufficiently active they are more likely to become overweight or ob ese, this in turn is linked with serious diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancers. For girls, there is also the increased risk of developing osteoporosis later in life if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t take physical exercise. * Well beingAs well as providing short and long term benefits, physical activity is also important for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall well being. If physical activity is taken outdoors, children will benefit from fresh air and a feeling of being in a free environment. Children can benefit emotionally and socially as they learn new skills and develop confidence playing with others The current guidelines for physical activity suggest that children should get a minimum of one hour a day. This can be through walking, play or structured activities. 1. 2 In order to achieve the physical skills required a mixture of movement skills need to be acquired in the right order.They include the following; * Hand Ã¢â¬â eye coordination Many activities require the hand and eye to work together. For example throwing a ball requires the brain to send the correct signal from the eyes to the hands to create the correct movements. * Foot-eye coordination Children have to learn to guide their feet. Kicking a ball or climbing stairs require this type of coordination * Balance Balance is a complicated skill. Although most of us take it for granted, the ability to balance is a skill that develops with age. These skills form and develop as part of the central nervous system in babies and young children.The Central nervous system is responsible for sending out signals from the brain to the rest of our body. Information is constantly collected from our bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s senses. The whole process is surprisingly quick allowing the body to take action against possible dangers. In babies and young children the central nervous system has to develop and mature. At first babies have to rely on the natural reflections they are born with until the central nervous system lear ns how to control their responses. The rate at which babies and children gain control over their bodies varies enormously.There are three key principles that underpin the gaining of this control; 1. Development follows a definite sequence Movements and control develop in a specific sequence which means babies cannot learn to walk before they can sit unsupported 2. Development starts with control of head movements and develops downwards and outwards Babies gain control over their head and top of their spine before the rest of the body. 3. Development starts with uncontrolled gross motor movements before becoming precise and refined Babies gain control over their arms before their hands and fingers.This is important to know before trying to teach a child to write. They will need to start with large letter types before learning to write letters in the correct size and form. We use our physical skills every day. The development of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s skills gives them independence, over t ime they no longer need our help to feed them or get them dressed or move from one place to the next. This gives them confidence to learn because they are exploring. Children also use their new found skills to play together and play more challenging games. Physical skills also link to other aspects of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall development.These are; * Emotional Development Builds childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence. When they can do things for themselves they are more likely to gain confidence. They can do things how and when they want . They can also use physical skills to express themselves like paint, draw and dance. * Language Development Language develops when there are things to talk about. This is easier when children can do things themselves to explore and see things. It gives them a reason to talk. * Social Development Play with babies is active rather than language based. Children can join in when they have learned and developed their physical skills. Cognitive Development Most o f childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning is linked to practical activities. This requires movement skills. There are links between early physical movements and brain development. 2. 3 Natural outdoor environments include, fields, woodland, moors and beaches. For children they are a wonderful playground which change with each visit according to the changes in the weather and the season . Children should have access to these kind of environments so they can learn about nature. These kinds of environments encourage children to learn and practise new skills such as climbing up a tree or over a wall or fence.They may also enjoy running on the sand, making footprints and pictures in it. Natural environments may also be challenging for the children as the terrain will be different. It may be uneven to walk on. There may be pools for them to jump in or avoid and things to jump over. All these encourage confidence and better coordination. 3. 1 Although many children are naturally active it is important to think about creating a range of different opportunities for them to develop their physical skills. Planning their development is important. Observation is key to planning for young children.It needs to be the starting point so we can establish what the children enjoy doing and ensure we are planning opportunities appropriate to their development. Planning appropriately for children involves the following; * Time You need to plan sufficient time for the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Some children learn at a slower pace so you need to allow for each individual to get enjoyment from the physical activity, while they are developing their new skills. * Balance of child initiated and adult initiated opportunities It is a requirement of the Early Years Foundation Stage that you allow enough opportunities of each during play activities.It is important as children need time to discover new skills for themselves and play in ways that interest them. * Interest Children need to be motivated in order to practise and develop their skills. It is important to look at what each child is interested in and develop from that so they are encouraged to learn and develop . Play is key for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development and learning so planning should be around their interests and how we can incorporate physical activity into this. * Developmentally appropriate Activities should be developmentally appropriate.So when planning you must allow for the fact some children have disabilities and special needs. Ensure you seek the correct guidance and support to enable all children to develop through physical activity. * Range of skills and movement It is important that all physical activities allow children to experience and practice a range of skills and movements. * Planning for non mobile babies Babies who are not yet mobile still need opportunities for physical activities. This might include a baby gym to encourage the baby to move their arms and legs, or grasping and shaking a rattle .Babies also need time lying on their front to encourage muscle development for when they learn to crawl. It is important to place objects where babies can reach and grab so they donÃ¢â¬â¢t become frustrated. We should also get on the floor and interact and play with the babies. In addition our plans also need to include actions we do ourselves which help babies enjoy movement. These include rocking, swinging, being held up high and bouncing. All these give babies a different view of the world and aid spatial awareness and rhythm. * Planning for toddlersToddlers enjoy exploring and practising their new found skills. They will need opportunities to walk and climb. Some resources toddlers will require to aid development are; * Books * Shape sorters * Sensory equipment such as water, sand and dough * Rocking horses * Sit and ride toys * Slides * Balls * Pushchairs * Planning for 3-5 year olds Most children this age will have fairly good coordination but they will need help developing their fine motor skills. They will also need varied support with their movement skills, which should be incorporated into their play whenever possible.Some adult led activities can be used to ensure that all children develop and range of movements and skills. Some equipment 3-5 year olds will need are; * Puzzles * Construction toys * Sand and water play * Dressing up and role play toys * Small world play * Climbing frames * Slide * Tricycles and scooters * Balls, hoops and cones * Fabrics * Pushchairs 3. 2 Once you have identified opportunities that will promote physical activity in the children you need to incorporate them into your plan.Your plan must; * Meet the individual movement skills needs of the children * Include activities that promote competence in movement skills * Encourage physical play To ensure these points are covered your plan should be based on observations you have carried out on the children. You may show in your plan, details of equipment, specific adult init iated and child initiated activities. The Early Years Foundation also states you show how each child is planned for. It is also good practice to include the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas when planning activities. They may have preferences to what activity or equipment they would like to use.You need to watch children carefully when implementing planned activities. Their reactions will let you know whether it is developmentally appropriate for them or not. They will also let you know if they find it interesting and sufficiently challenging for them. You should be ready to change, adapt or even abandon the activity if necessary. Being flexible and ready to change your plan according to the needs and interests of the children is essential. Children can be very creative and they may well change or adapt your planned activity to suit them.Some children are more confident than others and may find movement skills easier or be more confident taking risks. Other children will be hesitant and will nee d encouragement to go that step further. 4. 1 It is important to include physical activity into daily routines in order for children to gain skills and build stamina. Getting children used to physical activity as part of their every day lives will help them later on in life. It is also good practice for their independence. Working with parents so they are keeping the children active at home also helps.Children should also have outdoor play each day so they get used to the outside environment. Sources of physical activity in every day routines are; * Washing and drying up * Sweeping the floor and outdoor area * Pouring their own drinks * Preparing snacks * Walking up and down stairs * Tidying up * Dressing and undressing * Wiping tables * Hanging up coats * Walking to and from the setting In my setting we walk to school and back in the morning and afternoon. The children take off their coats and those that can reach hang them up. They take off their shoes and put them together.We hav e music time each day where the children can play the instruments and dance to the music and we go to the park or visit the local green where there are lots of trees and paths to walk on and there is a woodland area where we look for different animals, insects and birds. 5. 1 It is important for us to be aware of how effective our provision and practice is in supporting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical activity. To be able to assess the effectiveness in your setting you should consider the following; * Observe and assess childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation and developmental progress Look at the children and observe them over a number of weeks.Consider how interested they have been in opportunities of physical activity and if they have made progress. * Gain direct feedback from children ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions can be verbal or non verbal. They may tell us if they have enjoyed an activity or not. Children who cannot speak will let you know with body language and expression. A child who has enjoyed an activity may become excited at seeing a photo of them doing the activity. In my setting I have a photo album which the children can access themselves to look at. I also get it from time to time and we look at the pictures together. Gain feedback from parents, colleagues and others Other people can see more objectively and give their thoughts about our settings and provisions. Parents also experience seeing their children in other situations and may be able to guide us on sufficiently challenging activities. In my setting I have daily chats with parents, I also have a facebook page they can look at and I provide regular parent surveys to get feedback from them. 5. 2 Feedback and information you gain should be used to identify areas for future development.In some settings this may mean altering the physical environment while others may need to change the types of activities and play opportunities. 5. 3 It is important to reflect on your own practice in order to make any imp rovements necessary. Some questions you could ask yourself are; * Do you act as a good role model? * Do you join in physical activities? * Do you observe childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s physical skills regularly? * How aware are you of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s expected development? * How do you adapt activities and play opportunities to meet the individual needs oof the children? How do you ensure both boys and girls enjoy physical activity? * How do you plan activities to ensure the children are engaged in a range of movement skills? * How do you ensure that there is sufficient challenge for the children? * How often are children able to play in a natural outdoor environment? Being honest with yourself is key to ensuring you are meeting the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental requirements. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no good thinking you do that or being pretty sure you are good at this. You have to be sure bin order to provide the best for your children.